Allahabad High Court upholds CAT order directing Union Government to grant notional promotion to Railway employees from 2018

In a writ petition directed against the order of the Central Administrative Tribunal (‘CAT’), wherein the Tribunal directed the Union Government to grant notional promotion to the applicants w.e.f. 02-07-2018 thereby giving them all the consequential benefits as accrued, the division bench of Saumitra Dayal Singh and Rajendra Kumar-IV, JJ. held that the denial offered to the respondents to join back and being forced to wait till the cadre itself closed, was an act wholly arbitrary and indefensible at the hands of the Indian Railways, a department of Union of India. Thus, the Court upheld the impugned order of the Tribunal. Read more


WYNK v. TIPS Copyright Battle | “Statutory licenses under Section 31D restricted to traditional non-internet-based radio and television broadcasting and performances”; Bombay High Court affirms Single Judge order

In twin appeals challenging the decision in Tips Industries Ltd. v. Wynk Music Ltd., 2019 SCC OnLine Bom 13087, restraining Wynk from exploiting Tips’s copyright in audio files through their streaming service, the Division Bench of G.S. Patel* and Gauri Godse, JJ. observed that Wynk was not a charitable organization and not a service available to the public but specific subscribers, hence, claim under Section 31-D of Copyright Act, 1957 could not be allowed. Read more


Pre-Deposition Certificate by Controlling Authority under Section 7(7) of Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972 enables employer to file appeal without actual deposit: Calcutta High Court

In a review application challenging a series of legal actions related to the payment of gratuity, a division bench comprising of Rajarshi Bharadwaj and Shampa Dutt (Paul),* JJ., held that an employer can file an appeal by producing a certificate from the Controlling Authority stating that the required amount has been deposited under Section 7(7) of the Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972 and that this certificate is sufficient to enable the employer to file an appeal without transferring the deposited amount to the appellate authority. Read more

Caring for one’s parents is inherent compassion, a choice beyond compulsion; Calcutta High Court quashes criminal proceeding against wife

In a revision application seeking the quashing of proceedings against the wife by husband for alleged assault and issuing threats to him, a single-judge bench comprising of Shampa Dutt (Paul), observed that the main dispute appears to be related to the sale or retention of the husband’s house. The Court held that the case diary lacks substantial evidence to prima facie substantiate the offenses alleged against the wife and continuing the legal proceedings would constitute an abuse of the legal process. The Court quashed the criminal proceeding against the wife with the observation that taking care of one’s parents is an emotional and loving act, which cannot be forced, therefore, the wife cannot be forced to leave her mother and reside with the husband. Read more

Calcutta High Court upheld BL&LRO’s permission to private party for conducting Durga Puja on disputed land

In an application preferred under Article 226 of the Constitution of India, seeking protection of the property and direction with regards to prevention of obstruction of ingress and egress to the petitioners’ office, a single-judge bench comprising of Jay Sengupta, upheld the permission granted by the Block Land and Land Reforms Officer (BL&LRO) to the private respondents for conducting Durga Puja, since the private respondents have been conducting Durga Purja on the said land for so many years. Read more

Courts should ensure witness testimonies are not motivated by revenge/external influence before allowing Section 319 CrPC application: Calcutta High Court

While deciding a revision petition seeking to challenge the trial court’s order of rejecting the application under Section 319 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (CrPC), to arraign the proposed accused/opposite parties as accused in instant matter, a single-judge bench comprising of Shampa Dutt (Paul), J., dismissed the application and directed the trial court to proceed with the trial expeditiously. The Court held that the trial court may decide to bring important witnesses into the case during the trial, and applications related to this should be dealt with in accordance with the law. Read more

How to evaluate a suit’s legality in application under Order 7 Rule 11(d) of CPC? Calcutta High Court answers

In an application under Article 227 of the Constitution of India against the impugned order rejecting the petitioner’s prayer for the rejection of the plaintiff’s complaint under Order 7 Rule 11(a) & (d) of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (CPC), a single-judge bench comprising of Ajoy Kumar Mukherjee,* J., held that the lower court’s decision to reject the petition’s application was not perverse, and the lower court did not overstep its jurisdiction. Read more

Subsequent purchase of land acquired by State does not give purchaser right to challenge acquisition: Calcutta High Court

In an appeal challenging an order denying the appellant’s claim for compensation related to scheduled lands sought to be acquired by the National Highway Authorities, a division bench comprising of Debangsu Basak and Md. Shabbar Rashidi,* JJ., affirmed the impugned order denying the appellant’s claim for compensation. The Court held that the acquisition of the lands had been valid, and the subsequent purchase did not grant the appellant the authority to challenge the acquisition. The Court further held that subsequent notifications had no impact on the earlier acquisition. Read more

Expression of Interest must adhere to principles of fairness and non-discrimination; lack of transparency renders it arbitrary: Calcutta High Court

In a case involving a dispute between an association of LPG distributors, and the Indian Oil Corporation Ltd. (respondent) regarding the nature and validity of an Expression of Interest issued by respondent for the transportation of Indane LPG cylinders, a single-judge bench comprising of Bibek Chaudhuri,* J., determined that the Expression of Interest was an offer and not an invitation to offer and since the distributors were unable to propose counteroffers or negotiate terms, making the Expression of Interest a unilateral offer. However, the Court could not grant relief to the appellant due to their failure to comply with the statutory representation requirement under the West Bengal Societies Registration Act, 1961. According to the West Bengal Societies Registration Act, 1961 the writ petitions should be represented by the President, Secretary, or authorized office-bearer of the associations. Read more

Suppression of income can be used to infer that husband has sufficient means to maintain his wife: Calcutta High Court

In a revision application which challenged the order pertaining to case to filed under Section 125 of the Criminal Procedure Code, 1973 (CrPC) for maintenance, a single-bench comprising of Bibhas Ranjan De,* J., held that husband is duty bound to disclose his actual income before the Court and observed that, “Suppression of income can be a vital tool to come to a conclusion that petitioner/husband being an able-bodied person has sufficient income to maintain his wife.” The Court, hence, upheld the maintenance order. Read more

Appellate Courts should choose acquittal over remand to safeguard rights of accused: Calcutta High Court

In an appeal against the order of remand the matter to the Municipal Magistrate for reconsideration from the stage under Section 313 of the Criminal Procedure Code, 1973 (CrPC), and write a fresh judgment, a single-judge bench comprising of Subhendu Samanta,* J., held that direction of the Appellate Court to remand the case before the Magistrate was erroneous. The Court held that when an Appellate Court identifies discrepancies in the prosecution’s case, its primary duty is to acquit the accused, rather than remand the case, especially when such discrepancies are not curable by further proceedings. Read more


Delhi High Court refuses to exercise jurisdiction by invoking the doctrine of forum conveniens

In a case wherein the question regarding jurisdiction arose before the Court, Prateek Jalan. J*, opined that the letter dated 10-05-2016 from Delhi, only constituted a slender part of the cause of action and could not be the basis to determine that whether this Court could entertain the petition. The Court opined that the present case fell within the narrow category of cases where it was appropriate to invoke the doctrine of forum conveniens and refused to exercise the jurisdiction. Read more

Significance of socio-cultural activities cannot be ignored: Delhi High Court permits Dussehra celebration at district park

In a case wherein, the appellant, Shri Ram Leela Committee, had sought permission for Dussehra celebration at the District Park, Janakpuri the Division Bench of Suresh Kumar Kait and Neena Bansal Krishna*, JJ., granted permission to the appellants to host Dussehra celebrations in the District Park, Janakpuri for the current year from the date of the present order till 30-10-2023. The Court directed that the Dussehra mela should be held in accordance with all the applicable norms and by taking all the safety precautions, and further directed the appellants to ensure that no damage or harm was caused to the green cover or trees already existing in the ground. Read more

Prohibition on cut flowers import through all airports, except for Chennai, not arbitrary against traders in Delhi-NCR region; aims to fortify nation’s biosecurity: Delhi High Court

In a case wherein the petitioner’s, Fresh Fruit Flowers and Vegetables Traders Association’s grievance was the notification dated 09-07-2020 (‘impugned notification’) issued by Respondent 1, the Directorate General of Foreign Trade (‘DGFT’), under the aegis of Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Government of India (‘MoCI’), which imposed a prohibition on importation of a variety of cut flowers into India through all airports, except for Chennai airport, the Division Bench of Satish Chandra Sharma, C.J. and Sanjeev Narula, J.*, held that the impugned notification and order do not arbitrarily discriminate against flower traders in the Delhi-NCR region but rather aim to fortify the biosecurity of the nation. The Court observed that while the focus of the respondents had largely been on centralizing resources at a single port, the respondents had indicated an intent to scale up technical and laboratory capabilities at multiple ports across the country. Read more

Delhi High Court criticizes Authorities for abusing procedure of booking venue for Ramlila and Dussehra Mela

In a case wherein the petitioner approached this Court for a direction to the respondents to book the venue, Open Space near Gate No. 2 Parking Area, Jawahar Lal Nehru Stadium, Lodhi Road, New Delhi (‘venue in question’), in favour of the petitioner for a period of 22 days at the prevalent and applicable tariffs as mentioned on the website of Respondent 1 and to set aside the booking confirmed by Respondent 4 which, according to the petitioner, was contrary to the procedure laid down by Respondents 1, 2 and 3 for booking of the venue in question, Subramonium Prasad, J.*, held that no person could be allowed to violate the procedure of booking the venue by showing that they required the venue for a longer duration and later turn around and change the dates; such practice was unfair and could not be permitted. Read more

[Asian Games 2023] Delhi HC upholds disassociation of Chief Coach from the ongoing National Coaching Camp for Indian Kabaddi Team (Boys) due to sexual harassment allegations

In a case wherein the petitioner challenged the orders passed by the respondents, being Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports, Government of India; and Sports Authority of India, whereby the petitioner was relieved from the position of Chief Coach from the ongoing National Coaching Camp for Indian Kabaddi Team (Boys) for Asian Games 2023, Subramonium Prasad, J.*, opined that the order disassociating the petitioner from the position of the Chief Coach during the enquiry by the Internal Complaints Committee (‘ICC’) was not illegal or irrational nor suffered from procedural irregularities as the nature of the allegation in the complaint were serious. Thus, this Court held that it was not inclined to interfere with the decision arrived at by the respondents. Read more

Delhi High Court vacates stay on termination of Delhi Legislative Assembly Fellows

In a case wherein, the respondents filed an application for vacation of interim order dated 21-09-2023, by which the Court had restrained the respondents from discontinuing the services of petitioners and directed respondents to give stipends to the petitioners, Subramonium Prasad, J.* opined that since the Supreme Court had declined to stay the Order dated 05-07-2023, propriety demanded that this Court ought not to have passed any interim order which had the effect of the staying the Order dated 05-07-2023 and accordingly vacated the stay granted by its order dated 21-09-2023. Read more

Delhi High Court dismisses plea seeking ban of gross, graphic anti-tobacco imagery in health spots played during screening of movies and TV programmes

In a case wherein the petitioner approached this Court for a writ/direction to the respondent for prohibiting the display of anti-tobacco health spots during films in cinemas, on TV and on OTT, which contained graphic or distasteful, gross images, Subramonium Prasad, J.*, held that the present petition was a gross abuse of the process of law and the aim of the present petition was actually to restrain the Government from achieving a noble objective of a tobacco free State and to ensure that people did not become tobacco addicts. Read more

Delhi High Court directs State to notify mode and manner for compliance of Section 173(2)(ii) CrPC

A petition was filed under Section 482 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (‘CrPC’), seeking to quash/set aside an order dated 30-11-2022, passed by Additional Sessions Judge in a case registered for the offence punishable under Section 376 of the Penal Code, 1860 (‘IPC’). Swarana Kanta Sharma, J., issued directions for ensuring communication as mandated by Section 173(2)(ii) CrPC because a ‘may’ should not remain ‘may’ forever despite the earlier part of statute using the word “shall” conveying the intent of the legislature. Read more

[Theos v. Theobroma] ‘Theos to be restrained to Delhi-NCR region’; Delhi High Court settles terms in trade mark infringement suit

In a case wherein dispute arose relating to marks, being “THEOBROMA” and “THEOS”/“THEO’S”, used in respect of bakery related products, patisseries, confectionery, etc., Prathiba M. Singh, J.*, dictated the terms of the settlement for the issues in dispute and the parties further agreed to abide by the same, hence bringing the dispute to a conclusion. Read more

[Domino’s v Dominick] Delhi High Court restrains Dominick Pizza from using Domino’s registered trade marks

In a case wherein, the plaintiffs alleged infringement, by Defendant 1, Dominick Pizza of the plaintiffs registered mark ‘Domino’s Pizza’, ‘CHEESE BURST’ and ‘PASTA ITLAIANO’, C. Hari Shankar, J.*, granted the permanent injunction restraining Defendant 1, from using in any manner the marks ‘Dominick Pizza’, , ‘CHEESE BURST’ and ‘PASTA ITLAIANO’ or any other mark which was identical or deceptively similar to the plaintiffs’ registered trade marks. Read more

Delhi High Court lays directions regarding the rights of persons with disabilities in respect of the movie ‘Pathaan’

A petition was filed by four petitioners, out of whom, petitioners 1, 2 and 4 were visually impaired and Petitioner 3 was hearing impaired, in respect of the movie ‘Pathaan’. Prathiba M Singh, J., laid directions regarding the concerns raised by persons with disabilities in view of their cinematic experience of the film and impleaded necessary parties to reach a conclusion. Read more

Delhi High Court orders suspension of domain names and blocking of Telegram channels for illegally sharing Apna College study material

In a case wherein, an application was filed under Order 39 Rules 1 and 2 of the Civil Procedure Code, 1908 (‘CPC’) seeking temporary injunction against the defendants to restrain them from unlawfully sharing copyrighted materials, Pratibha M. Singh J., opined that if the defendants were not blocked from disseminating the plaintiff’s copyrighted material, the plaintiff would suffer enormous monetary loss including loss of subscribers and goodwill. Thus, the Court opined that a case had been established for grant of an injunction to prevent further distribution of the plaintiff’s copyrighted material and accordingly restrained the defendants from downloading, uploading, storing, sharing, transmitting, selling, offering for sale, storing or utilizing any of the plaintiff’s courses. Read more

Delhi High Court refuses modification in bail condition mandating prior Court permission to travel abroad

A petition was filed by the petitioner under Section 482 read with Section 439 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (‘CrPC’), seeking to set aside the order dated 09-08-2023 passed by learned Additional Sessions Judge, Patiala House Courts, New Delhi and further seeking modification of bail conditions imposed vide order dated 23-02-2021 in case arising out of FIR registered under Sections 124-A, 153, 153-A, 120-B of the Penal Code, 1860 (‘IPC’). Swarana Kanta Sharma, J., rejects the prayer seeking modification of bail condition as there is no infringement of mobility rights of the accused or any geographical boundaries restriction placed on the petitioner but a reasonable condition of seeking permission of the Court before travelling abroad which has not been denied to her in the past. Read more

Parental Alienation from father who never showed any neglect is an extreme act of mental cruelty: Delhi High Court upholds divorce

In a case wherein, an appeal was filed under Section 19 of the Family Courts Act, 1984 against the judgment and order dated 04-09-2018 granting divorce under Sections 13(1)(ia) and 13(1)(ib) of Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 (‘the Act’), the Division Bench of Suresh Kumar Kait and Neena Bansal Krishna, JJ.* opined that once vindictiveness crept in and the wife filed various complaints, legal suits and even alienated the child from the husband, it could be concluded that various acts of cruelty were committed towards the husband. The Court partially modified the impugned judgment and decree dated 04-09-2018 by setting aside the divorce on the ground of desertion but upheld the divorce on the ground of cruelty. Read more


Himachal Pradesh HC directs DGP to comply with POCSO Act for protecting identity of victim

In a case wherein, the applicant filed an application under Section 439 of Criminal Procedure Code, 1973 (‘CrPC’), seeking to be released on bail, during the pendency of the trial, Virender Singh, J., ordered the applicant to be released on bail. The Court however expressed concerns regarding the manner in which Section 33(7) of the Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act, 2012 (‘POCSO Act’) was being violated and further directed the Director General of Police, Himachal Pradesh to issue necessary instructions to all Investigating Officers in the State to adhere to the provisions of Section 33(7) of the POCSO Act and issued similar directions to the Judicial Officers in the State of Himachal Pradesh, while dealing with the cases under the POCSO Act. Read more


“Question of claiming maintenance does not arise when wife is staying in adultery”: Karnataka High Court

While considering the instant petition wherein a wife had challenged the order of the Sessions Judge whereby which he had set aside the order of granting maintenance to the petitioner under Section 12 of the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005 along with compensation; the Bench of Rajendra Badamikar, J.*, dismissed the petition stating that when the wife is staying in adultery, the question of claim of maintenance does not arise at all. The contention that the petitioner is a legally wedded wife and entitled for maintenance cannot be accepted in view of her conduct, who is not honest and is leading adulterous life. Read more

Whether insisting the deceased to repay the loan borrowed and telling him to die amounts to abetment to suicide? Karnataka HC answers

In the instant appeal wherein the Court considered the question that whether the aspect of insisting the deceased to repay the loan borrowed and telling him to die amounts to abetment to suicide or not; the Bench of Shivashankar Amarannavar, J.*, acquitted the appellant/accused stating that having advanced money to the deceased the accused uttered some abusive words and threatened to take his life; but that by itself is not sufficient to constitute the offence under Section 306 of Penal Code, 1860. The Court further pointed out that in the case of suicide, mere allegation of harassment of the deceased by another person would not suffice unless there be such an action on the part of the accused which compels the person to commit suicide; and such an offending action ought to be proximate to the time of occurrence. “Whether a person as abetted in the commission of suicide by another or not, only be gathered from the facts and circumstances of each case”. Read more


Social reservations need not be maintained by Educational Institution administered and managed by Minorities: Madras High Court

In a writ petition filed against the orders dated 20-11-2021 and 17-06-1998, passed by the Principal Secretary, Higher Education, Government of Tamil Nadu, rejecting extension of religious minority status to the Justice Basheer Ahmed Sayeed for Women College (‘College’) and also consequently imposing the condition of restricting admission of minority students up to 50 percent ,the division bench of Sanjay V. Gangapurwala*,C.J. and P.D. Audikesavalu, J. while setting aside the impugned order dated 20-11-2021, has held the following: Read more

Read why Madras HC granted ad interim injunction in favour of Sangeetha hotels, restraining franchisee from using ‘Geetham’ mark

In an interlocutory application filed by Sangeetha Hotels in a suit alleging infringement of its trade marks by the defendants/respondent, P.T Asha, J. said that Sangeetha Hotels has made out a prima facie case for grant of an ad interim injunction and the balance of convenience is also in its favour. Read more

Madras HC directs students to clean classrooms, write articles on Mahatma Gandhi, Dr. Abdul Kalam, former CM Kamaraj as conditions for anticipatory bail

In criminal original petitions filed by four students/ petitioners under Section 438 of the Code of Criminal Procedure (‘CrPC’) to grant anticipatory bail to the petitioner in the event of his arrest for offences under Sections 147, 148, 447, 294(b), 323, 324 of the Penal Code, 1860 (‘IPC’) and Section 3(2) of Tamil Nadu Public Property (Prevention of Damage and Loss) Act, 1992, RMT. Teekaa Raman, J. granted bail to all the four students, subject to the following conditions: Read more


Meghalaya HC grants bail to HIV positive accused under NDPS Act

In a bail application filed under Section 439 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (‘CrPC’) for seeking grant of bail for offence under the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act, 1985 (‘NDPS’), W. Diengdoh, J. granted bail to the accused on grounds that the accused is suffering from human immunodeficiency virus (‘HIV’) and required special consideration. Read more


“Arbitrator can interpret contract, but cannot travel beyond four-corners of contract and rewrite its terms and alter nature”: Orissa HC

In an arbitration appeal under Section 37 of the Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996 (‘the Act’) against the Single Judge’s Order of the Orissa High Court, whereby the Arbitral Tribunal’s interpretation of the contractual provisions was upheld, the Division Bench of S. Talapatra, CJ. and S.K Panigrahi, J.* allowed the arbitration appeal and set aside the impugned orders of Arbitral Tribunal and Single Judge for holding that shocked the conscience of the Court. Read more

Form Committee to supervise inventory of valuables in Ratna Bhandar of Puri Jagannath Temple: Orissa HC directs State

In a public interest litigation petition regarding the management of the Ratna Bhandar of Shri Jagannath Temple, Puri, the division Bench of S. Talapatra, CJ.* and Savitri Ratho, J. directed the State Government to constitute a High-Level Committee for supervising the conduct of inventory of the valuables including jewelleries stored in the Ratna Bhandar. Read more

Orissa Association for Blind not ‘State’ within meaning of Article 12 of the Constitution: Orissa HC

While hearing a civil writ petition under Article 226 and 227 of the Constitution of India filed by an employee (‘petitioner’) to direct the Utkal Blind Organization Vocational and training Centre to allow the petitioner to resume her duty in the girls hostel with all service benefits, the question of maintainability of the petition was raised, and Biraja Prasanna Satapathy, J. held that the Orissa Association for Blind is not State within the meaning of Article 12 of the Constitution of India, hence no directions can be issued in the petitioner’s favour. Read more


‘Unlikely to be implicated in multiple FIRs at whims and fancies of Investigating Agency’: Punjab and Haryana HC refuses bail in NDPS matter

In a petition filed under Section 438 of the Criminal Procedure Code, 1973 seeking bail for offence under Sections 21(c), 22(c) and 25 of Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act, 1985 (‘NDPS Act’), Jasjit Singh Bedi, J. refused to grant bail to the petitioner noting the fact that he was also involved in another case of NDPS Act and absconding the same. Read more


Telangana High Court upholds CRPF personnel’s termination on grounds of mental illness and depression

In a case wherein a writ petition was filed seeking a mandamus to declare the actions of Respondent 4 in terminating the petitioner from Central Reserve Police Force (‘CRPF’) under the proviso to Rule 5(1) of Central Civil Services (Temporary Service) Rules, 1965 (‘Rules’) instead of Rule 16 of the Rules without serving one month notice or one month salary as contemplated under the said Rule as arbitrary, illegal and unconstitutional, Nagesh Bheemapaka, J., observed that the respondents had followed the mandate provided in the Rules and that medical expenditure was borne by CRPF while the petitioner was in service, hence, continuing the same facility even after termination was not in conformity with the procedure. The Court opined that in an organisation like CRPF, a member suffering from bipolar affective disorder, psychosis C Epiphora and depression could not be expected to perform his duties with utmost commitment and discipline. Hence, the Court agreed with Respondent 4’s action of termination. Read more

Telangana High Court upholds validity of Sections 5, 6 and 15 of Press and Registration of Books Act, 1867

In a case wherein, the petitioners had challenged the validity of Sections 5, 6 and 15 of the Press and Registration of Books Act, 1867 (‘the Act’), the Division Bench of Alok Aradhe, CJ., and N.V. Shravan Kumar, J., opined that the Sections 5 and 6 of the Act had sought to regulate the activity of newspapers publications, which was a reasonable restriction under Article 19(2) of the Constitution and therefore, the fundamental rights of the petitioners under Articles 19(1) and 21 of the Constitution had not been infringed. Thus, the Court held that Sections 5, 6 and 15 of the Act were intra vires and did not suffer from any infirmity and accordingly, dismissed the writ petition. Read more


Sainik School denies admission to student for being medically unfit; Uttaranchal High Court dismisses petition seeking admission

In a case wherein the Petitioner had applied for admission in Sainik School, Ghorakhal, Nainital (‘School’), and was denied admission on the ground that she did not meet the physical and medical fitness standards. Aggrieved by the rejection, the Petitioner seeks directions from the Court to be allowed admission in the School. Ravindra Maithani, J.*, observed that the Petitioner did not meet the medical standards set out for admission and the rejection was in accordance with the Rules and Regulations, hence dismissed the writ petition. The Court held that, “Petitioner has a congenital insufficiency of musculoskeletal structures of both feet and may be associated with other congenital anomalies in the body which are not clinically obvious at present, but may manifest later on”. Read more

Must Watch

maintenance to second wife

bail in false pretext of marriage

right to procreate of convict

Criminology, Penology and Victimology book release

Join the discussion

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.