2023 SCC Vol

Motor Vehicles Act, 1988 — Ss. 166, 168 and 173 — Permanent disability: Principles to be adopted by Tribunals/Courts for determination of compensation in cases of permanent disability due to motor accident, extensively surveyed and summarized. [Sidram v. United India Insurance Co. Ltd., (2023) 3 SCC 439]

Penal Code, 1860 — Ss. 405 and 406 — Criminal breach of trust: Meaning and ingredients of criminal breach of trust, explained. [Deepak Gaba v. State of U.P., (2023) 3 SCC 423]

Penal Code, 1860 — Ss. 84, 86, 302 and 201 — Defence of insanity or mental incapacity — When available: Principles clarified regarding matters to be considered for availability of defence of insanity or mental incapacity. [Prem Singh v. State (NCT of Delhi), (2023) 3 SCC 372]

Prohibition of Benami Transactions Act, 1988 — S. 3 [as it stood in the unamended 1988 Act]: S. 3 [as it stood in the unamended 1988 Act, held, unconstitutional, being manifestly arbitrary, vague and violative of the substantive due process requirement of the Constitution. S. 3 of the unamended 1988 Act criminalised very act of payment of consideration by one person to seller for acquisition of property for another person i.e. benamidar (tripartite transaction) but excluded element of mens rea. Absence of mens rea made the provision harsh envisaging strict liability. Further, absence of essential ingredient of beneficial ownership of real owner made the provision more stringent and disproportionate with respect of benami transaction of tripartite nature without identifying any reason or principle therefor. Operation of S. 3 of the unamended 1988 Act, if allowed, would also have other deleterious consequences. [Union of India v. Ganpati Dealcom (P) Ltd., (2023) 3 SCC 315]

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