Case BriefsSupreme Court

Supreme Court: A Division Bench of A.M. Khanwilkar and Dinesh Maheshwari, JJ., while addressing a contempt petition held that,

“…to constitute civil contempt, it must be established that disobedience of the order is wilful, deliberate and with full knowledge of consequences.”


Non compliance of direction to Food Corporation of India to regularise and departmentalise workers concerned who had initiated industrial disputes before Industrial Tribunal, Chennai under Section 10(1)(d) of Industrial Disputes Act.

The employees concerned were employed as daily-rated labour or casual labour and had been working for some time with some cases of 15 to 20 years.

Contempt Petition against FCI

FCI contended that it had already regularised the eligible employees who were under Direct Payment System (DPS) and nothing further was required to be done.

Further the Corporation stated that claim was restricted to regularisation of the employees concerned after abolition of the contract labour system. There was no prayer for absorbing the concerned employees under any specific system of regular labour prevailing in the Corporation. The Corporation has four systems of labour engagement, namely, (i) Departmental Labour System, (ii) Direct Payment System, (iii) No­-Work-­No-­Pay System and (iv) Mate System.

Corporation’s Stand

In the decision of SAIL v. National Union Waterfront Workers, (2001) 7 SCC 1 (Constitution Bench), it was held that, contract labour need not be absorbed after abolition of contract labour system.

Taking reference from the above, Corporation stated that the provision of FCI and its primary duty is to undertake purchase, storage, movement, transport, distribution and sale of food grains and other food stuff.

Continuing its’ contention, Corporation stated that, If all the regular workers in the Corporation are brought under the Departmental Labour System, there will be recurring liability on public exchequer to the tune of Rs 3,000 crore per annum and if arrears are also given with effect from 2003, there will be additional financial burden of more than Rs 40,000 crore.

As per the extant policy, the respondent could have regularised the workers concerned only under theDirect Payment System and therefore, it is certainly not a case of disobedience, much less wilful or deliberate disobedience of the order passed by this Court.

Decision of the Court

Bench adverted to the exposition of Supreme Court’s decision in Ram Kishan v. Tarun Bajaj, (2014) 16 SCC 204, wherein the Court had delineated the contours for initiating civil contempt action.

Excerpts from the referred SC decision:

“…in order to punish a contemnor, it has to be established that disobedience of the order is “wilful”. The word “wilful” introduces a mental element and hence, requires looking into the mind of a person/contemnor by gauging his actions, which is an indication of one’s state of mind.”

“Even if there is a disobedience of an order, but such disobedience is the result of some compelling circumstances under which it was not possible for the contemnor to comply with the order, the contemnor cannot be punished.”

Court in the present case observed that, neither the relief in the References was specific for regularisation in Departmental Labour System only nor the Tribunal, the Madras High Court/Kerala High Court or this Court was called upon to deal with that issue specifically.

Subject References, as well as, the direction issued by the Tribunal, which has been upheld upto this Court is silent about the system in which the concerned workers have to be regularised and departmentalised, therefore, it is incomprehensible as to how it would be a case of disobedience.

Therefore, Court held that, no specific direction had been given to the Corporation to regularise the workmen concerned only in the Departmental Labour System.

Furthermore, the Departmental Labour System is now a dying cadre and the policy of the Corporation at the relevant time entailed regularisation of such workmen only under the Direct Payment System (DPS).

Hence, no contempt action can be initiated on the basis of general direction to the respondents to regularise and departmentalise the concerned workmen.

Petition stands dismissed in the above view. [Workmen v. Ravuthar Dawood Naseem, 2020 SCC OnLine SC 461 , decided on 19-05-2020]

Case BriefsHigh Courts

Jammu & Kashmir High Court: A Division Bench of Ali Mohammad Magrey and Dhiraj Singh Thakur, JJ. disposed of the appeal after asking the Writ Court to hear the parties and decide the writ petition on merits, expeditiously.

An appeal was filed by the appellant (who is the respondent 7 in the connected writ petition), against the order dated 23-10-2019 passed by the learned Single Judge in the contempt petition arising out of Other Writ Petition (OWP) filed by the respondent’s 8 to 11.

The appellant stated that the respondents 8 to 11 had filed an OWP, wherein the learned Single Judge, in terms of order dated 10-01-2019, while issuing notice to the respondents, observed that pendency of the writ petition shall not come in the way of the official respondents in making further follow up under law in pursuance to NIT No. 64/02/EEP/R&B/2018-19 dated 27th of June, 2018. Thereafter, alleging non-compliance of the aforesaid order passed by the learned single Judge, the writ petitioners/ respondents 8 to 11 filed a contempt petition, wherein the learned single Judge, in terms of order dated 23-10-2019, i.e., directed that the Additional Deputy Commissioner, Pulwama, was to take immediate steps to provide security to the Executing Agency so that the execution work undertaken by the Executive Engineer, R&B, Division Pulwama, with respect to pathway in question went unhindered.

The appellant submitted that the contempt petition had arisen out of the ad-interim order passed in writ petition filed by the respondents 8 to 11 wherein the learned Single Judge has only made observation that pendency of the writ petition shall not come in the way of the official respondents in making further follow up under law, however, the learned Single Judge had gone beyond the scope of contempt jurisdiction by issuing further directions for providing security to the Executing Agency.

The Court found force in the submissions of the appellant and, therefore, ordered that the impugned order was set aside; since the consideration in the contempt petition was deferred. Accordingly, the appeal was disposed of along with the connected petitions. [Ghulam Hassan Rather v. UTof J&K, 2019 SCC OnLine J&K 913, decided on 02-12-2019]

Hot Off The PressNews

Supreme Court: The 3-judge bench of Ranjan Gogoi, CJ and SK Kaul and KM Joseph, JJ has closed the contempt petition filed by BJP lawmaker Meenakshi Lekhi against Congress leader Rahul Gandhi for wrongly attributing to the court, his “chowkidar chor hai” slogan against Prime Minister Narendra Modi in Rafale Deal case. The bench , however, said

“Rahul Gandhi needs to be more careful in future,”

Lekhi had accused Gandhi of misquoting the April 10 order of the Supreme court in which it had allowed additional leaked documents to be put on record as evidence in the Rafale case.Gandhi, who was then the president of the Congress party, allegedly said that the Court had accepted that ‘chowkidar’ (a reference to Prime Minister Modi), is a “chor’ (thief).
Pursuant to this, the Supreme Court issued a contempt notice against him.

Chief Justice Gogoi was categorical that Gandhi had to either offer a clear-cut apology or face criminal contempt. Subsequently, Gandhi tendered an unconditional apology to the Court and sought closure of the contempt proceedings against him.
During the course of proceedings, former Attorney General Mukul Rohatgi, who represented Lekhi, had argued that Gandhi’s apology should be rejected and
action must be taken against him.

“He (Gandhi) has only expressed regret. The law is clear in contempt cases that the line starts with an unconditional apology,”

The bench also dismissed the the petition seeking review of it’s 2018 order where the bench had dismissed the petition seeking probe in the much talked about Rafale Deal by holding that there was no reason for any intervention by this Court on the sensitive issue of purchase of 36 defence aircrafts by the Indian Government.

(Source: ANI)

Read more about the 3-judge bench verdict in Rafale Deal case here.

Case BriefsHigh Courts

Madhya Pradesh High Court: Prakash Shrivastava, J., dismissed the revision petition filed by the respondents under Section 115 CPC where they challenged the order of the Trial Court, whereby their application for rejection of plaint under Order 7 Rule 11 CPC was rejected.

The respondents had filed the suit for declaration and permanent injunction, wherein the petitioners had filed the application for rejection of plaint which has been dismissed by the impugned order. The petitioner argued that he was carrying his business on the suit property and earlier had filed a writ petition before the High Court. The Court issued directions relating to map and permission to construct Pakka shop and for non-compliance of the said contempt was also filed, therefore, the present suit was not maintainable and the trial court had committed an error in rejecting the application under Order 7 Rule 11 CPC.

The respondent submitted that post the passing of the order in Writ Petition and Contempt Petition, a lot of development has taken place and the order of the Trial Court does not suffer from any error.

The Court held that the plaint can be rejected under Order 7 Rule 11 CPC if the defendant is able to point out that any of the grounds which are mentioned in Rule 11 exists on the basis of the plaint averment. The petitioners could not point that there is any bar in entertaining the suit before the Trial Court. Merely on the basis of the order in the writ petition and in the contempt petition the plaint cannot be rejected on the ground that it does not disclose any cause of action, when otherwise in the plaint cause of action has been disclosed. The Trial court had rightly taken note of the fact that the materials on which the petitioners were placing reliance upon cannot be considered for rejection of plaint under Order 7 Rule 11 CPC. There was no illegality in the order passed by the Trial Court and the revision petition was found to be devoid of any merit and was dismissed. [Purshottam v. Murlidhar, 2019 SCC OnLine MP 2099, decided on 22-08-2019]

Case BriefsHigh Courts

Jammu and Kashmir High Court: The Bench of Tashi Rabstan, J., dismissed the application filed for seeking stay of contempt proceedings pending in the contempt petition on the ground that the applicants/respondents had already filed a review petition for review of judgment/order, implementation of which was sought by the writ petitioner by filing the contempt petition.

The facts of the case were that the Court had given direction to the applicants/respondents to consider the claim of writ petitioner as per the rules occupying the field and having regard to the judgments/orders passed in a prior case which was applicable to the case of writ petitioner. Against the said order, the applicants/respondents filed a review petition along with an application for condonation of delay; writ petitioner also filed a contempt petition seeking implementation of judgment/order. In the contempt petition, the Court vide an order directed the applicants either to comply with the judgment or produce before the Court the order, if any, passed in the review petition. Against the said order, the applicants/respondents filed the instant application in the review petition seeking to stay of contempt proceedings pending in the contempt petition.  The writ petitioner’s contention was that the application was to be dismissed simply on the ground that the applicants/respondents had already filed an independent motion in the contempt petition for deferment of contempt proceedings till the time the review petition was decided by the Court.

The High Court was of the opinion that the application could not be allowed. It was observed, “The present application deserves to be dismissed simply on the ground that on perusal of the application it reveals that the applicants/respondents have already filed an independent motion in the contempt petition for deferment of contempt proceedings till such time the review petition is decided by this Court. Further, the applicants/respondents have not stated that under which provision of law they have filed the instant application in the review petition thereby seeking staying of contempt proceedings”. Furthermore, the Court, noting the statements made by counsel for the applicants/respondents, held that they had already complied with the judgment/order. The application was thus dismissed. [Syed Mohammad Hafiz v. State of J&K, 2019 SCC OnLine J&K 176, Order dated 27-02-2019]

Case BriefsHigh Courts

Manipur High Court: A Single Judge Bench comprising of Ramalingam Sudhakar, CJ, dismissed a contempt petition filed against the Sub-Deputy Collector, Sawombung (Imphal East).

The matter related to a property suit between the parties. The suit was decreed by the learned Civil Judge against the defendants (petitioners herein), against which they preferred an appeal before the learned District Judge. The appeal was admitted; however, no interim order was passed. The plaintiffs moved to Sub-Deputy Collector for mutation of revenue records based on the decree passed. Recording that there was no stay on the decree passed by the Civil Judge, the Sub-Deputy Collector allowed the amendment to revenue records. The defendants alleged that the Sub-Deputy Collector committed contempt in terms of Section 2(b) of Contempt of Court Act 1971.

The High Court perused the record and found no merit in the contentions put forth by the defendants. The Court categorically observed, “in absence of stay or injunction in the appeal, the party who succeeds in the litigation should be entitled to enjoy the fruits of the decree unless there is a restraint order by the appellate forum”. The Court found that there was no stay order against the decree passed by the Civil Judge. As such, the Sub-Deputy Collector did not disobey any order of the Court. In such circumstances, the Court held the contempt petition to be sans merit. The petition was accordingly dismissed. [Huidrom Ningolakpa Singh v. Lunguiba Thangal, 2018 SCC OnLine Mani 53, dated 02-06-2018]