Supreme Court: In the petition seeking setting aside the appointment of K.V. Chaudhary as Central Vigilance Commissioner and T.M. Bhasin as Vigilance Commissioner on the ground that these persons are not of impeccable integrity and also seeking order directing investigation into the incriminating material seized in the raids conducted on the Birla and Sahara Group of Companies in question, the Court said that the materials which have been placed on record either in the case of Birla or in the case of Sahara are not maintained in regular course of business and thus lack in required reliability to be made the foundation of a police investigation..
The bench of Arun Mishra and Amitava Roy, JJ said that the Court has to be on guard while ordering investigation against any important constitutional functionary, officers or any person in the absence of some cogent legally cognizable material. When the material on the basis of which investigation is sought is itself irrelevant to constitute evidence and not admissible in evidence, it will not be safe to even initiate investigation. There has to be some relevant and admissible evidence and some cogent reason, which is prima facie reliable and that too, supported by some other circumstances pointing out that the particular third person against whom the allegations have been levelled was in fact involved in the matter or he has done some act during that period, which may have co-relations with the random entries. If the same is not done, then the process of law can be abused against all and sundry very easily to achieve ulterior goals and then no democracy can survive in case investigations are lightly set in motion against important constitutional functionaries on the basis of fictitious entries, in absence of cogent and admissible material on record, lest liberty of an individual be compromised unnecessarily.
Noticing that the materials placed on record in the present case are random sheets and loose papers and their correctness and authenticity, even for the purpose of income mentioned therein have been found to be un-reliable having no evidentiary value, by the concerned authorities of income tax, the Court said that the complaint should not be improbable and must show sufficient ground and commission of offence on the basis of which registration of a case can be ordered. [Common Cause v. Union of India, 2017 SCC OnLine SC 41, deiced on 11.01.2017]