Case BriefsCOVID 19High Courts

Bombay High Court: The Division Bench of R.D. Dhanuka and V.G. Bisht, JJ., held that offering of prayers only in the mosque during the period of Ramzan could not be considered due to the ongoing critical COVID situation which is serious in nature.

Petitioner sought direction to respondents to allow Muslims to offer 5 times prayers and Taraweeh namaz at the mosque from 14th April, 2021 till the end of Ramzaan adhering to social distancing and SOP’s in force.

Government of Maharashtra has issued an Order dated 13-04-2021 under the provisions of Disaster Management Act, 2005 stated that the State Government having been satisfied that the State of Maharashtra was threatened with the spread of COVID-19 Virus, and therefore it was imperative to take certain emergency measures to prevent and contain the spread of virus.

As per the Order, the State of Maharashtra had already enforced night curfew and restricted all activities except the activities falling under the essential category. State Government even banned all religious, social, cultural or political functions of any kind during the 14-04-2021 to 01-05-2021. It was specifically stated that the Religious Places of Worship shall remain closed. All the personnel engaged in the service of the place of Worship shall continue to perform their duties though no outside visitor shall be allowed.

In Court’s opinion, the restrictions were imposed after considering the prevailing circumstances and various other pros and cons.

Bench while expressing that Article 25 of the Constitution of India permits all persons equally entitled to freedom of conscience and the right to freely profess, practice and propagate religion, the same is subject to public order, morality and health, held that:

such congregation which is apprehended by the State, if such permission is granted, it is likely that it would seriously affect the public order and health. If such permission is granted, it would violate the condition imposed under Article 25 of the Constitution of India.

In Delhi High Court’ decision of Delhi Waqf Board v. Government of NCT of Delhi, it was clearly stated that the Union of India had agreed for allowing the petitioners to offer prayers subject to following COVID norms.

Bench opined that Delhi High Court’s decision could not be taken as a precedent in the present case.

Considering the prevailing situation and the ground reality prevailing in the State of Maharashtra, Court cannot permit the petitioner to perform any prayers in the said mosque in violation of the order dated 13th April, 2021 issued by the Government of Maharashtra which is issued in the public interest and for the safety of all the residents of Maharashtra.

In view of the above discussion, a petition was dismissed. [Juma Masjid of Bombay Trust v. State of Maharashtra, WP (L) No. 10152 of 2021, decided on 14-04-2021]


Advocates before the Court:

Mr M. A. Vaid a/w Ms Shagufa Ansari, Ms Vidhya Seth i/by M/s. Vaid and Associates for the Petitioner.

Ms Jyoti Chavan, AGP for Respondent No.1-State.

Case BriefsCOVID 19High Courts

Allahabad High Court: A Division Bench of Shashi Kant Gupta and Ajit Kumar, JJ., while addressing a Public Interest Litigation held that,

Azan may be an essential and integral part of Islam but recitation of Azan through loud­ speakers or other sound amplifying devices cannot be said to be an integral part of the religion, warranting protection of the fundamental right enshrined under Article 25 of the Constitution of India.”

Background

Member of Parliament (Lok Sabha), Afzal Ansari wrote a letter stating that fundamental right to religion of people at Ghazipur may be protected and State Administration may be directed to permit the recitation of Azan by only one person “Muezzin” from respective mosques of District Ghazipur, since it does not violate any of the directives issued in view of COVID-19 containment.

Senior Advocate of Supreme Court of India, Salman Khurshid also approached Allahabad High Court through Advocate Syed Mohd, Fazal to seek permission of recitation of Azan for the Muslims at Farrukhabad, Hathras, Ghazipur as Azan recitation is an integral part of Islam.

With the prayer of similar relief, Senior Advocate S. Wasim A. Qadri also wrote a letter.

In view of the above, a Public Interest Litigation was filed by Afzal Ansari .

Relief sought was that,

Muslims in the Districts Ghazipur and Farrukhabad, may be permitted to recite Azan through “Muezzin”, by using sound amplifying devices and the restrictions imposed by the administration are wholly arbitrary and unconstitutional since they do not, in any way, violate the guidelines issued for the containment of the pandemic.

Further it was submitted that pronouncement of Azan is not a congressional practice but is simply an act of recitation by a single individual which in no manner violates any of the conditions of lockdown.

Petitioner also added that caretaker of the Mosque is usually responsible for the recitation of Azan who resides in the mosque, in other cases person assigned the duty of recitation Azan is the closes available person, in both the stated cases, no violation of lockdown norms would be observed.

Also ban on Azan through sound amplifying devices is a violation of fundamental right under Article 25 of Constitution of India

Azan is integral to religion and in no way undermines the society’s collective response to the pandemic.

-Senior Advocate, Salman Khurshid

Additional Advocate General while appearing on behalf of the State, supported the Counter Affidavit filed by the Government, wherein it was submitted that, Azan is a call for congregation to offer prayers at the Mosque which clearly is a violation of COVID-19 guidelines.

A meeting was also convened by District Magistrate, Ghazipur on 24th march, 2020 which was attended by several religious leaders wherein it was decided that no religious activities will be conducted during the period of lockdown at any public place of worship and no loudspeakers/amplifiers would be used for the said purpose.

“In the new guidelines issued by Government in view of lockdown, it was stated that all religious places/places of worship shall be closed for public. Religious congregation strictly prohibited.”

Further it was submitted that,

During the period of lockdown with cooperation of religious groups no loud speakers/amplifiers have been used during the festivals like Navratri, Ram Navmi, Hanuman Jayanti and Parasu Ram Jayanti. People of different religions have been following the guidelines and no religious activities are being carried out at any religious place of worship or public place, and no loudspeakers have been used since 24.03.2020

Additional Advocate General stated that right contained under Article 25 of the Constitution of India is subject to public order, morality, health and Part III of the Constitution of India. Rule 5 of The Noise Pollution (Regulation and Control) Rules, 2000 also states that a loud speaker or a public address system shall not be used except after obtaining written permission from the authority.

Bench Analysis & Decision

While referred to the decision of Calcutta High Court in Moulana Mufti Syed Mohammed Noorur Rehman Barkati v. State of W.B.,wherein it was held that,

use of microphone and loud­speakers were not an essential and an integral part of Azan.

There is catena of judicial decisions which recognizes the right to live in freedom from noise pollution as a fundamental right protected by Article 21 of the Constitution of India. Noise pollution beyond permissible limit is hazardous which violates the fundamental rights of citizens.

In the Supreme Court decision of Church of God (Full Gospel) in India v. K.K.R. Majestic, (2000) 7 SCC 282, it was held that

“No religion prescribes that prayers should be performed by disturbing the peace of others nor does it preach that they should be through voice amplifiers or beating of drums.”

Court also observed the fact that petitioner’s counsel could not explain why the Azan could not be offered without the use of amplifying devices.

There is no such religious order which prescribes that Azan can be recited only through loud­speakers or by any amplifiers. Azan is certainly an essential and integral part of Islam but use of microphone and loud­speakers is not an essential and an integral part thereof.

Thus, Court for the above also stated that Right to religion by no stretch of imagination, ought to be practised, professed and propagated saying that microphone has become an essential part of the religion.

Azan may be an essential and integral part of Islam but recitation of Azan through loud­speakers or other sound amplifying devices cannot be said to be an integral part of the religion warranting protection of the fundamental right enshrined under Article 25 of the Constitution of India, which is even otherwise subject to public order, morality or health and to other provisions of part III of the Constitution of India.

Another point of significance to be noted is that, until and unless there is a license/permission from the authorities concerned under the Noise Pollution Rules, under no circumstances, Azan can be recited through any sound amplifying devices.

Hence it is ruled that while the right to offer Azan by voice, without the use of sound amplifying devices is a right protected under Article 25 of the Constitution. However, the right to recite Azan though sound amplifying devices is not protected under Article 25, since it is not an integral part of Islam.

Further, the Court stated that,

Azan can be recited by Muezzin from minarets of the Mosques by human voice without using any amplifying device and the administration is directed not to cause hindrance in the same on the pretext of the Guidelines to contain the pandemic­ Covid­-19.

With the above observations, PIL stands disposed of. [Afzal Ansari v. State of U.P., 2020 SCC OnLine All 592 , decided on 15-05-2020]