“Union Territory”, if “State” under Art. 131: The subject-matter of this article’s discussion is: does a “Union Territory” fall under word “State” of Article 131 for invoking the original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court. [Does A “Union Territory” Fall Under Word “State” of Article 131 for Invoking Original Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court: A Legal Anyalsis by Baglekar Akash Kumar, (2023) 1 SCC J-13]

Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996 — Ss. 11(6) and 16 — Appointment of arbitrator: Dispute with respect to arbitrability ordinarily must be left to arbitrator. [VGP Marine Kingdom (P) Ltd. v. Kay Ellen Arnold, (2023) 1 SCC 597]

Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996 — Ss. 31(7)(a) and (b) — Post-award interest only on principal amount awarded i.e. on part only of the “sum”— Permissibility of: The phrase “sum” was interpreted in the opinion of Bobde, J. and in the concurring opinion of Sapre, J. in Hyder Consulting, (2015) 2 SCC 189 to mean the amount directed to be paid by an arbitral award as arrived in S. 31(7)(a), which would include the aggregate of the principal and the pre-award interest. Bobde, J.’s opinion in Hyder Consulting case held that the arbitrator may grant post-award interest on the aggregate of the principal and the pre-award interest, however, the opinion did not discuss the issue of whether the arbitrator could use their discretion to award post-award. S. 31(7)(b) does not fetter or restrict the discretion that the arbitrator holds in granting post-award interest and the arbitrator has the discretion to award post-award interest on a part only of the “sum”. [Morgan Securities & Credits (P) Ltd. v. Videocon Industries Ltd., (2023) 1 SCC 602]

Commercial Courts Act, 2015 — Ss. 3(1a), 3-A, 3, 10, 15 and 21 — Constitution of Commercial Courts: Designated Commercial Court/Judge subordinate to rank of Principal Civil Judge/Principal Civil Court in District has jurisdiction to hear all applications or appeals under the A&C Act, 1996, other than those arising out of international commercial arbitrations. [Jaycee Housing (P) Ltd. v. High Court of Orissa, (2023) 1 SCC 549]

Constitution of India — Art. 141 — Principles for determining if/which precedent is binding: Subsequent decision which squarely governs the issue in question, held, would be binding as against other precedents which may be more generally or broadly relevant. [SBI v. Arvindra Electronics (P) Ltd., (2023) 1 SCC 540]

Constitution of India — Art. 279-A: Directions issued regarding implementation of system for digital generation of Document Identification Number (DIN) for all communications sent by State Tax Officers to taxpayers. [Pradeep Goyal v. Union of India, (2023) 1 SCC 566]

Costs: Beginning with a recount of the history of these systems the article evaluates their relative strengths and weaknesses. The author then proceeds to study the Indian legal system’s cost shifting rules in civil proceedings with an analysis of how the system works in the country’s commercial capital Mumbai. Thereafter, the author weighs in on the cost shifting system applicable to domestic arbitrations governed by the provisions of the Act. The article will attempt to present a normative basis for determining reasonable costs under the cost shifting regime introduced for arbitrations under the Act. [A Requiem For Costs by Mikhail Behl, (2023) 1 SCC J-20]

GST — Transitional Credit: Directions issued regarding availing of transitional credit, and related issues. [Union of India v. Filco Trade Centre (P) Ltd., (2023) 1 SCC 562]

Income Tax — Tax Deducted at Source (TDS)/Tax at Source (TAS): Manner of receiving commission/origination of amount, as in the present case from customers to travel agents, is irrelevant for TDS applicability. [Singapore Airlines Ltd. v. CIT, (2023) 1 SCC 497]

Income Tax Act, 1961 — Ss. 147 to 151 (as introduced w.e.f. 1-4-2021): Changes brought about vide these substituted provisions w.e.f. 1-4-2021, explained. [Union of India v. Ashish Agarwal, (2023) 1 SCC 617]

Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016 — Ss. 238 and 14 — Primacy of IBC over Customs Act: IBC, being the more recent statute, held, clearly overrides the Customs Act. In any case, S. 238 IBC clearly provides that IBC overrides any provision of law which is inconsistent with the IBC. [ABG Shipyard Liquidator v. Central Board of Indirect Taxes & Customs, (2023) 1 SCC 472]

Insurance — Contract of Insurance/Policy/Terms/Cover Note — Exemption/Exclusion/Restriction/Limitation/Forfeiture Clauses/Negative Covenants — Duty of insurer to disclose exclusion clause: Law comprehensively clarified regarding effect of non-discharge of duty of insurer to disclose exclusion clause by insurer and non-compliance of statutory mandate under IRDA Regulations, 2002 in this regard. [Texco Marketing (P) Ltd. v. TATA AIG General Insurance Co. Ltd., (2023) 1 SCC 428]

Insurance — Life Insurance — Generally — Repudiation of claim: Where policy was not accepted by insurer, it is justified in repudiating claim of insured/his nominee. [Mahendra Todi v. Birla Sunlife Insurance Co. Ltd., (2023) 1 SCC 534]

Labour Law — Contract Labour — Contract labour engaged through labour contractor: Matters to be considered for determination of employer-employee relationship whether stood established with head employer. [Kirloskar Brothers Ltd. v. Ramcharan, (2023) 1 SCC 463]

Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881— S. 138 and S. 56 r/w S. 15 — Loan transaction — Issuance of cheque as security — Effect of part-payment of debt prior to presentation of cheque for encashment: For attracting S. 138, as per proviso (b) a demand notice needs to be made by the drawee of the cheque and an omnibus demand notice without specifying as to what was the amount due under the dishonoured cheque would not subserve the requirement of law. Further, when a part-payment of the debt is made after the cheque was drawn but before the cheque is encashed, such payment, held, must be endorsed on the cheque under S. 56 and the cheque cannot be presented for encashment without recording the part-payment. Therefore, if the unendorsed cheque is dishonoured on presentation, the offence under S. 138 would not be attracted since the cheque does not represent a legally enforceable debt at the time of encashment. [Dashrathbhai Trikambhai Patel v. Hitesh Mahendrabhai Patel, (2023) 1 SCC 578]

Pre-Arbitration Procedure: Very often, arbitration agreements provide that, in the event of disputes arising between the parties, they will take certain steps before they can refer the disputes to arbitration. Such steps, which are to be taken before a party can refer the disputes to arbitration, are also described or referred to as conditions precedent, or multitier clauses, or preliminary steps. The discussion in this article show that it is not certain at all, in India as also in England, as to whether pre-arbitration procedure is mandatory or not, and if mandatory, to what extent. Different views have been expressed in different judgments from time to time. Pre-Arbitration Procedure: Mandatory Or Directory? [By Ketan D. Parikh, (2023) 1 SCC J-1]

Service Law — Pension — Family pension — Entitlement to — Determination of — Wife of deceased work-charged employee — Deceased appointed as work-charged employee in R-1 Housing Board: Housing Board being statutory and autonomous body, framing its own rules and policies governing service conditions of its employees, and rules framed by State Government for its employees applicable only when specifically adopted by Board. In absence of any rules governing service conditions of work-charged employees, R-1 vide order dt. 2-7-2015 extending benefit of pension to them by bringing them within purview of NPS. Pursuant thereto, option offered to work-charged employees to opt for NPS. However, appellant’s husband failing to opt for the Scheme. Hence, held, appellant was held not entitled to family pension. [Sunita Burman v. M.P. Housing & Infrastructure Development Board, (2023) 1 SCC 570]

Service Law — Police — Appointment — Post of Police Constable: In this case, there was rejection of candidature of appellant solely on ground of his involvement in criminal case under S. 498-A IPC, in which he was subsequently acquitted. Matters to be considered to determine the propriety of the order, explained. [Pramod Singh Kirar v. State of M.P., (2023) 1 SCC 423]

Service Law — Regularisation — Contractual employee — Temporary appointment as stop-gap measure without proper selection procedure, until proper tender process was completed: In this case, merely because R-1 continued in service for longer period on contractual basis, order of regularisation could not have been passed by High Court, particularly when policy decision was taken to avail services of driver by agency/contractor which process was delayed and the reason for the repeated extensions; and appointment of R-1 and other similarly situated drivers was not made after following due selection procedure. [Zila Parishad, Thane v. Santosh Tukaram Tiware, (2023) 1 SCC 456]

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