Case BriefsForeign Courts

   

Court of Appeal of the Republic of Singapore: In a case of possession of Class A controlled drug for the purpose of trafficking that challenged the Ss. 356, 357 and 409 of the Criminal Procedure Code, 2010 (‘CPC') for being inconsistent with Arts. 9(1) and 12(1) of the Constitution of the Republic of Singapore, the bench of Sundaresh Menon, CJ.,Tay Yong Kwang JCA and Woo Bih Li JAD declared that the CPC Cost provisions were not violative of Articles 9 and 12 while noting that the provisions cannot rationally deter a lawyer from acting in bona fide.

Factual Matrix

The appellant in the case, Abdul Rahim, and a co-accused person, Ong Seow Ping (“Ong”), were scheduled to be executed on Friday, 05-08-2022 after conviction in a joint trial for possessing a Class A controlled drug for the purpose of trafficking under S. 5(1)(a), read with S. 5(2), of the Misuse of Drugs Act for which their appeal was dismissed and eventually filed OC on 01-08-2022. The appellant also challenged CPC Cost Provisions stating that they are invalid for being inconsistent with the Constitution.

Appellant's Contention

The appellants contented that the Declaration Claim is inconsistent with the principles of natural justice and the Constitution. The appellants claimed that it prevented and/or obstructed from appointing lawyers to review and/or challenge their conviction and/or sentence and/or the clemency process and/or make other legal challenges.” which denied them access to justice and thus, violated Articles 9(1) and 12(1) of the Constitution. The appellants claimed that the exposure to costs by the CPC Cost Provisions made it unlikely for the lawyers to represent them out of fear of costs.

The appellant further mentioned in his OC, 173 as grounds of his stay application, his despondence regarding the assigned counsel, Manoj in joint trial for not calling material witness in the case and not objecting to the facts moulded by the authorities in the trial.

Opinion and Analysis

Relying on Roslan Bin Bakar v. Public Prosecutor, [2022] SGCA 57, the Court opined that the Articles 9 and 12 were not violated by the Declaration Claim. The CPC Cost Provisions were “unlikely to deter” counsel from providing bona fide legal advice and representing clients in good faith. The court also observed that CPC Cost Provisions merely prevents the person or lawyer to appear before a court “improperly” and does not deter them from acting in bona fide appeals of the death-row inmates, moreover, the appellants failed to show a viable legal cause of action supported by facts.

The Court also stated that the OC 173 was devoid of merits and was an abuse of the process of law. The Court dismissed the oral application for the stay on execution presented after five days of notice of execution. The Court exercised its powers under Or. 3 R. 2(2) ROC “to prevent an abuse of the process of the Court” while stating that the OC 173 was “inappropriate”.

[Iskandar bin Rahmat v. Attorney General, [2022] SGCA 58]


*Ritu Singh, Editorial Assistant has put this report together.

NLSIU
Law School NewsOthers

National Law School of India University, Bangalore invites entries for the 26th Annual H.M. Seervai Essay Competition in Constitutional Law. Participants in this pan-India essay competition stand a chance to win the prestigious H.M. Seervai Gold Medal from NLSIU.

About the Competition:

In 1997, Senior Advocate Navroz Seervai instituted a Gold Medal in the name of the distinguished jurist, the late H.M. Seervai, for the best original essay written on the themes specified in Indian Constitutional Law. Over the years, this essay writing competition has become a prestigious event for law students all over India. The significant rise every year in the number of contributions from the student community shows their mark of respect and tribute to one of the greatest legal luminaries of our country, Hormasji Maneckji Seervai.

In 2021, the gold medal was awarded to Aachman Shekar, NALSAR University of Law for his essay on ‘The 50% Reservation Ceiling: Protecting or Hindering Equality?’ Read the winning essay here.

Topic for 2022:

How should the Supreme Court of India reshape the law of arrest and bail?

Eligibility:

Students currently enrolled in an LL.B. / B.A., LL.B. / BBA, LL.B./B.Com., LL.B. regular mode programme in any recognised Law School / College / University in India may make a submission.

Submission Guidelines:

  • Each entry should be an original, unpublished, single-authored essay in English.
  • Every essay must clear anti-plagiarism checks.
  • Entries should be formatted in Times New Roman, size 12 font, double-spaced on an A4 sheet, & carefully referenced using the OSCOLA citation style.
  • Word limit: 7,000-10,000 words (inclusive of footnotes).
  • Submission Deadline extended to: Midnight, August 28, 2022.

To submit your essay, click here.

The University reserves the right to conduct interviews with selected candidates.

For any queries, please write to hmse@nls.ac.in

Interviews

Mr Tushar Agarwal completed his LLB from the Amity Law School, Amity University, Noida in the year 2015, and enrolled with the Bar Council of Delhi. Mr Agarwal also successfully completed a diploma course in “criminal justice” from Harvard University, United States.

His practice primarily focuses on criminal law, constitutional law and commercial arbitration. His chamber caters to all the needs of the litigants starting from legal opinion and legal drafting to presenting arguments before the court of law.

Mr Agarwal was one of the assisting counsels representing Dr Shashi Tharoor in a famous State v. Shashi Tharoor, Sessions Case (SC) No. 5/2019. He has also appeared in few pro bono cases with Senior Counsels representing Association of Victims of Uphaar Tragedy, Association of Victims of Meerut Fire Tragedy, etc. Mr Agarwal is currently handling few important matters relating to corruption, corporate frauds, moneylaundering and goods and services tax (GST) evasion being investigated by Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI), Serious Fraud Investigation Office (SFIO), Enforcement Directorate (ED) and Directorate General GST Intelligence (DGGI) respectively.

He has been interviewed by Khushbu Sood, EBC/SCC Online Student Ambassador who is currently pursuing law from HPNLU.

 

1. To begin with, if I may request you to please share with our readers something about yourself, your journey in the profession and your early years.

I am a first generation lawyer from a small town of U.P. i.e. Meerut and shifted to Delhi in 2009 to chase and fulfil my dreams. I completed my LLB from the Amity Law School, Amity University, Noida in the year 2015, and enrolled with the Bar Council of Delhi. I have also successfully completed a diploma course in “criminal justice” from Harvard University, United States.

During my law education, I explored about my deep interest in criminal law and with God’s grace, I was fortunate enough to start my professional journey with one of the stalwarts of criminal law in India Mr Vikas Pahwa, Senior Advocate. I joined his chamber as Legal Associate which provided me a great exposure as I got an opportunity to assist him in variety of high profile cases across various legal forums in Delhi as well as outside Delhi. One case which I would like to mention is State v. Shashi Tharoor, Sessions Case (SC) No. 5/2019 wherein Mr Pahwa was representing Dr Shashi Tharoor and I assisted him at the initial stage of the case. So the right guidance and mentoring in early years helped me in laying down a strong foundation of my professional career.

 

2.  What inclined you towards the field of legal education? Do you reckon any specific incident that made you choose law as a career?

Law is considered to be one of the noblest profession. A lawyer is the only professional who is addressed as learned. So, with the knowledge of law, it is expected from a lawyer that he/she will use that knowledge in making people aware about their legal rights and also fight on their behalf before a court of law for protecting those rights. So, being a participant in fight for protection of legal rights of the people of your country, was the biggest motivation for me to practise this profession.

There is no specific incident that made me choose law as a career. I was curious since my school days to learn about the genesis of various laws implemented in India because I feel that having deep knowledge of law makes you more socially empowered.

 

3.  How did you shape at the law school? Please also share your interests and motivations. How did you navigate through your career path?

At law school, apart from academic sessions and classes, the participation in moot courts, mock trials and other extracurricular activities also helped me a lot in pursuing my studies with utmost dedication and interest. Such activities used to act as a refresher/stressbuster in the hectic college schedule. I had also been in the leadership teams of various college associations like moot court society, legal entrepreneurship cell, media society, etc. Such roles helped me in developing good quality leadership skills.

I had interest in taking up challenging leadership roles since my school days. Such leadership roles not only refine your personality but also provide an opportunity to polish your communication and interaction skills. The motivation behind pursuing law as a career and taking these leadership roles was the direct opportunity of interaction with the legends and renowned Judges and senior advocates who used to visit the college on various occasions.

Further a combination of right guidance from college teachers, mentoring by fraternity seniors, support from family and strong self-belief and hard work and blessings of God and elders, together helped me in pursing my career path in an effective and efficient manner.

4. How has your experience shaped you into the professional? How has your primary interests in criminal law, constitutional law and commercial arbitration, helped you set up your chambers?

The internships across my entire law degree with various advocates, senior advocates, law firms and Judges, helped me in exploring my interest into litigation and that too especially in criminal, arbitration and constitutional law. So pursuing my internships sincerely made my journey easy to formally start practising as an advocate.

  1. Starting your own chambers is a hardworking and tiresome task, do you think it is important to have some specialisation or should there be generalist approach?

 

In the initial days of independent practice through your own chamber, the biggest challenge is to build your face value in the fraternity and to convince the clients about your quality of services in order to retain them. It is very hard to get the relief from the court of law for your clients. So in these initial times, your work experience during trainings and internships plays a major role.

I religiously follow all the ethical and professional practices learnt from my seniors and continue to do hard work with utmost dedication. I spend good amount of time in reading judgments and doing legal research to update my knowledge. My updated legal knowledge and awareness helped me a lot in retaining the clients.

In my opinion, in initial few years of independent practice, one should be open to take up all sort of cases like civil, criminal, arbitration, etc. Once you start building your image in one sort of matters and start gaining a good command over that particular field of law, then a chamber can think of narrowing down its practice to only that matter which falls within its area of specialisation. The specialist approach in initial days limits a lawyer within a periphery which he becomes unable to cross in future.

 

  1. Since your recent achievement, please share your experience of being awarded with “Top 100 Lex-Falcon Award” in LexTalk World Global Conference in Dubai for his contributions in legal industry.

This award indeed was a milestone in my professional journey. These kind of awards and recognition not only enhances your visibility in the fraternity but also motivates you to continue to contribute towards your industry. This award gave me an opportunity to take my practice at global level by making good relations with advocates and counsels across the world.

 

     7.   What, according to you, has changed/modified in law, both in statutes and in the society.

In my opinion, the law with passage of time has become more dynamic. With more frequent and new technological, political and global developments, the requirement of repealing old and obsolete statutes has increased and enactment of new statutes keeping in view the current situation, has become necessary. Further with the passage of time, the awareness about law and status has increased in the society. The people have become more aware about legal rights and the ways to enforce them. But in my view, this increased awareness has also resulted into increased filing of cases before courts. Therefore the onus is on lawyers to guide their clients in a correct manner in order to avoid frivolous and baseless litigations.

     8.  Not many people are familiar with the concept “exhaustion of a search”. What are your views on it?

I guess, the concept of “exhaustion of a search” is a very subjective matter and it differs from individual to individual. The stage of exhaustion of a search for a researcher will never arise until and unless his/her purpose of research is not completed and all questions are not answered.

For example: while doing a research on a law point, finding a case law is not sufficient. One should also research about any executive ordinance or government notification or any report of Law Commission or any report of Parliamentary Committees, etc. in order to have a holistic view regarding that particular law point.

  9.   What advice would you like to give students of law in a post-COVID era where students are anxious about choosing career paths?

In my opinion, this pandemic is a temporary phase which has now almost come to its end. The legal work in courts and corporates has started gaining its original pace which was there before pre-COVID era. Therefore my sincere advice to all aspiring lawyers is that instead of getting disappointed and anxious, they should use their time to enhance their legal knowledge either by reading legal books, judgments or writing articles or pursuing online internships, etc. They should focus on exploring new areas like artificial intelligence in law, etc. They can also plan to go for higher studies.

There are endless opportunities floating in this legal ocean, one just has to look and wait for it with patience and grab the same once it knocks your door. I might be sounding very bookish and non-realistic, but after spending so many years in this profession I have learnt that patience, persistence and hard work are the only ways to climb the stairs of success.

   10.  Any advice you would like to give to the readers of SCC blog? Apart from this is there anything else that you would like to share with the readers of SCC Online?

To all the aspiring lawyers which are readers of SCC blog, my sincere advice would be that whenever you join any chamber as an associate, you should spend good amount of time in that office without making any haste to start independent practice. You should focus on learning art of legal drafting, courtcraft, style of arguments, case management, etc. from your senior because none of these arts can be learnt by reading books. I still remember the exact words of my senior-cum-mentor, who trained me, that “you cannot become Ram Jethmalani in 2 or 3 years of practice. You have to be patient and give adequate time to this profession if you want to achieve success”.

Conference/Seminars/LecturesLaw School News

About Academic and Debating Committee (ADC)

Academic and Debating Committee (ADC) is one of the most active committees of Chanakya National Law University. It regulates various academic and debating activities of the students of CNLU. It aims to foster an active parliamentary debate culture in the university and to provide every student with a platform to engage in fruitful academic discussions about pertinent issues through Debates and Discussions. Under the umbrella of ADC, we have various activities like English Debating, Hindi Debating, Quiz, JAM, Turn-Coat, Poetry (Hindi & English), and several academic activities like panel discussions and seminars. Under the ADC, debating sessions and discussions are conducted every evening after the classes where senior batch students and ADC student members guide the juniors and interact with them in respect to various activities.

About the Panel Discussion

Academic and Debating Committee (ADC) of Chanakya National Law University, Patna is organising a Panel Discussion on-

“Dialogues on Inclusion and Exclusion – a conversation about intersection of law, educational institutions and the LGBTQIA+ community”

The ultra-conservative society where we live in, has been the centre point of discrimination and delegitimization of the issues faced by the LGBTQIA+ community. Many from the community often come to the educational institutions hoping for them to be an inclusive, safe and accepting space. But the conservative mindsets, lack of inclusive policies and awareness further act as hindrances in their quest of seeking equality. In order to raise awareness regarding these issues and to facilitate a nuanced understanding of issues faced in legal spaces, we invite stakeholders from different parts of the country to join us in this panel discussion.

We hope that this panel discussion helps us navigate through the structural and policy reforms that would make educational institutions and legal spaces more inclusive.

 

About the Panelists:

Rohin Bhatt: He is a queer lawyer and a queer rights activist from India. He is graduated this year with a Master of Bioethics degree from Harvard Medical School and is the co-founder of the Indian Bioethics Project. He writes on a wide range of topics including queerness, reproductive rights, bioethics, constitutional law and the effects that fascism has on human rights on both academic and public platforms.

Anish Gawande: He is a writer and translator. After graduating with a degree in comparative literature and society from Columbia University, he moved back to India to work within electoral politics and run the Dara Shikoh Fellowship, an interdisciplinary arts residency in Kashmir. Anish is the founder of Pink List India, the country’s first list of politicians supporting LGBTQ+ rights, and is passionate about the intersection of queerness and politics in the global South. He is currently a Rhodes Scholar at the University of Oxford, where he is pursuing a master’s in intellectual history and public policy.

 

Swati Bidhan Baruah: An advocate at the Guwahati High Court. Swati is a transgender rights activist from Assam and is a founder of the All Assam Transgender Association. She is the first transgender person in India to be appointed as al Judge to the Lok Adalat in Guwahati. Swati filed one of the first cases in India seeking permission from the court to undergo sex re-assignment surgery. She has filed several petitions before the Guwahati High Court and also in the Supreme Court seeking implementation of the directions of the Supreme Court in NALSA v. Union of India and for protection of rights of transgender persons in Assam and the North East. She also filed a PIL at Guwahati High Court challenging the Ayushman Bharat for accommodating transgenders under the said scheme.

 

About the Moderator:

Vaivab Das: They completed their M.A. in Gender Studies from Tata Institute of Social Sciences (TISS) and is currently a PhD candidate at IIT Delhi. They have been constantly working towards the promotion of Human Rights and its legal advocacy. Their research revolves around the areas of Gender, Sexuality, the Law (concerning questions of citizenship, legal legibility & epistemic injustices) and Society.

Date: 3rd July, 2022

Time: 5: 00 PM to 6: 30 PM.

Register here.

Join using this link.

This discussion is open to all. Certificate of participation shall be given to the registered participants.

OP. ED.SCC Journal Section Archives

— Nani Palkhivala — Brief reference about his birth, background, etc. — His Education — Joining law and at the Ban — First appearance in a case of Constitutional significance in the Bombay High Court — Reference made to the other famous cases argued — Part-time Lecturer at Government Law College, Bombay — Important cases argued in the Supreme Court — Bhanji Munji (1955), Bank Nationalisation case (1970), Privy Purse case (1971) — Bennett Coleman (1972), St.Xavier’s College case (1974), Seshammal case (1972), Kesavananda Bharati (1972) and Minerva Mills Case (1980) — Palkhivala’s Magnus Opus, the Law and Practice of Income tax — Annual Budget speeches — Represented India in three case in the International for a — Office of the Attorney General and Judgeship of the Supreme Court declined — Contribution to an hospital — Donation to the Jayaprakash Institute of Human Freedoms founded by him — His qualities and greatness stressed — Final days and answering the Inevitable Summons from the Maker on 11-12-2002 — Association with this Speaker — Concluding note

On 16-1-1920 was born a child in Bombay whom his parents christened Nanabhoy. It was not an earth-shattering event at that time. In later years, he was known as Nani Palkhivala — a household name, not only amongst lawyers, but throughout the length and breadth of our country.

What was the constitution of this man who became an authority and a guardian of our Constitution in later years? What was his background?

Physically he was not impressive. A young, slim boy measuring about 5 feet 7 inches in height and not having many kilos to carry.

Nani Palkhivala was not born with a silver spoon in his mouth. He hailed from a humble Parsi middle-class working family. His ancestors were in the profession of making and fixing “palkhis,” namely, palanquins, to be fitted to horse carriages of those times. Hence the surname Palkhivala, which like many Parsi surnames, is associated with a particular calling or profession.

Nani Palkhivala’s schooling was in Master’s Tutorial High School in Bombay. He was a brilliant student and did extremely well despite his initial handicap of stammering which he overcame by sheer willpower. After matriculation he joined St. Xavier’s College, Bombay and completed his MA in English Literature.

In younger days, he did take to music and played the violin reasonably well. But the spell of Apollo was short-lived. Music was not one of his passions in later life.

Palkhivala applied for a Lecturer’s post at Bombay University. To his surprise and regret, a Parsee girl was appointed to the post. With admission to most other courses closed, he enrolled at Government Law College, Bombay. This is one instance how destiny plays a role in one’s life. Had Palkhivala got the Lecturer’s post, we would have had a brilliant Professor but the world of law and public life would have been a loser. Nani was eternally grateful to the young lady Professor and treated her to a dinner for several years.

Read more … 


*Attorney-General for India

Note: This article was first published in Supreme Court Cases Journal (2003) 4 SCC J-33. It has been reproduced with the kind permission of Eastern Book Company.

Canada SC
Case BriefsForeign Courts

Supreme Court of Canada: Full Bench of Wagner CJ and Abella, Moldaver, Karakatsanis, Côté, Brown, Rowe, Martin and Kasirer J., rejected an appeal by the Crown against a trial court’s order granting a stay of charges in the case of a Sri Lankan man accused of murder, holding that undue delays in trial are unjust to the accused, the victims and the society as a whole. 

Mr Thanabalasingham was accused of murder in 2012 and his preliminary hearing lasted over a year. The trial was scheduled to be held in April, 2017, but shortly before it was to commence, the accused brought a motion for a stay of proceedings, claiming a violation of his rights under Section 11(b) of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, which guarantees the right to be tried within a reasonable time. A stay of proceedings would mean that the trial would not proceed and there would be no further court action seeking a verdict, at least for the time being. The trial judge ordered the stay and the Court of Appeals upheld that order. The present case is the Crown’s appeal against it in the Supreme Court.

While Maude Payette, Richard Audet and Catherine Perreault represented the appellant, no one appeared for the respondent, who had been deported in 2017 after the trial court’s ruling. Louis Belleau and Antoine Grondin-Couture served as amicus curiae.

The Court held that the 30-month presumptive ceiling established in R v. Jordan [2016] 1 S.C.R. 631, which it considered the guiding framework in determining Section 11(b) infringements, had clearly been breached since there had been a delay of almost five years between the charge and the end of trial. It rejected the Crown’s argument claiming that the case fell under the transitional exceptional circumstance, stating that though most of the delay had accrued before the release of the guidelines in Jordan in 2016, the delay in this case had stemmed from the very systemic delay which the Court had intended to do away with while passing Jordan. Moreover, the present case, with its 43 month-delay, would have warranted a stay even under the previous framework established in R v Morin [1992] 1 S.C.R. 771, which set the limit between 14 to 18 months.

The Court emphasized repeatedly on its intention to change what it called “the culture of rampant and long-standing systemic delay — and complacency towards that delay — that had grown up in the Canadian criminal justice system,” and, consequently, dismissed the appeal. [Her Majesty v. Sivaloganathan  Thanabalasingham, 2020 SCC OnLine Can SC 1 , decided on 17-07-2020]

Law School NewsOthers

Mr. Saunak Kumar Rajguru, an avid Mooter and a Bar Council of India Trust Scholar, is hereby declaring ‘1st Constitutional Law Memorial Writing Tournament’ with ‘Lex Assisto’. The Event is aimed at enhancing the Mooting skills and will prepare the students to excel in their mooting endeavors. I request you to kindly circulate this invite among the students of your college and among your contacts.

About Mr. Saunak Rajguru

Mr. Saunak Rajguru is a Bar Council of India Trust Scholar. His team has won the 33rd Bar Council of India Moot, 2017 along with the Best Memorial for Round – 3, and he bagged for himself the Best Male Advocate Award in the country’s premiere mooting tournament. Apart from this, he has won the RGSOIPL, IIT KGP Moot, UFYLC Jaipur’s National Moot (Ranka) and the All India Law School Meet’s Moot, Bhubaneswar and has also bagged the Best Advocate Tag in each of the above mentioned competitions. He has also bagged the Best Speaker and Best Memorial tags in the 7th MS Ramaiah Moot and 3rd NCU Environmental Law Moot, where his team finished as Semi-Finalists. He was declared Runners-Up in the 4th UPES National Trial Advocacy and has been a Quarter-Finalist in the 22nd edition of the Stetson Moot to name just a few.

PROPOSITION

  1. Mr. Yousuf, aged 38, is a recently appointed Senior Counsel in the Supreme Court of India. In the year 2011, he tied knots with his childhood friend Ms. Shanaya who is a human rights activist, and has been vocal about many women-centric issues plaguing the society. Although, the couple had settled in New Delhi, both of them belonged to the ‘Dawoodi Bohra Community of India’, having their respective ancestral properties in village Pahal, an area populated by the members of the afore-mentioned community.
  2. In the year 2012, the couple were blessed with a baby girl, named Fathima. It was all well until 2014, wherein Mr. Yousuf faced pressure from his community members to perform ‘Female Genital Mutilation’ [FGM] on Fatima. Mr. Yousuf and Ms. Shanaya, were not at all inclined towards the idea and refused to do any such act. This enraged the community members who excommunicated the entire family from their village. It was also to the extent that, when Ms. Shanaya’s father expired, the community members did not allow his body to buried in the cremation ground of the village. The couple were thus compelled to dispose of their respective properties and leave the village forever.
  3. Ms. Shanaya was shocked to witness such turn of events and decided to raise the issue concerning the barbaric act of FGM at the national level. She conducted research surveys in the areas where such act is prevalent and prepared a report with respect to the human rights violations owing to such barbaric act. She submitted the Report to ‘Friends of Daughters’, an NGO endeavoring to protect girl child rights in the country. The Secretary of the NGO, on finding enough substance in the Report, decided to move to the Apex Court by way of a Public Interest Litigation.
  4. The Petition was heard by a Division Bench of the Apex Court and notice has been issued to the Union of India. The Petition, inter alia, has assailed the act on the grounds of violation of fundamental rights of the citizens exposed to such barbaric act.
  5. Draft the Submissions on behalf of the Petitioner only.

REGISTRATION DETAILS

  1. Register by filling out the details, Click here

Dates have been extended : 25th Dec and 30th Jan are the deadlines for registration and submissions respectively

  1. Fees: INR 200 (for single candidate) and INR 300 ( For a 2 member team).
  2. Payment Options: a) PayTM- 7377464252 {Please use ‘Send Money to Bank’ feature}
  • Google Pay- 7377464252
  • Bank/Online Transfer- NAME- SAUNAK KUMAR RAJGURU
    BRANCH- ANDHRA BANK
    AC. NO- 004210100046823
    IFSC- ANDB0000042.
  1. Additionally, send a copy of your payment receipt to saunakrajguru3@gmail.com.

RULES FOR WRITTEN SUBMISSION / EVALUATION

1 Individual or Teams have to prepare and submit memorial from on one side, i.e. ‘Appellant’.
2 Last Date to submit the Written Submissions is 5:00 PM, 30th January, 2019.
3 Late submissions beyond the stipulated time period shall be penalized with 1 negative mark per day.

THE FONT OF THE BODY OF THE MEMORIAL SHOULD BE IN THE FOLLOWING FORMAT:
• Font of the body of the memorial: Times New Roman, size 12,
• Line spacing:1.5 Heading: Font size 12 The font to the footnotes: Times New Roman, size 10. Body of text: Justified
• Participants shall cite all authorities in the Written Submission using footnotes following the Bluebook Method of Citation (19th edition).

AWARDS

Although I am floating this event for a Charitable purpose, however, the following awards will be provided:
a) Cash Prize of INR 650 to the ‘Winner’ & Free Access to my Online Mooting Course Materials worth INR 1000.
b) Cash Prize of INR 350 to the ‘Runners-Up’ & Free Access to my Online Mooting Course Materials worth INR 1000.
c) E-Certificates to each and every participant.