Supreme Court: The 3-judge bench of AM Khanwilkar, Dinesh Maheshwari and Sanjiv Khanna, JJ has held that the provisions of Foreign Trade (Development and Regulation) Act, 1992 (FTDR Act) are in addition to, and not in derogation of, the provisions of any other law for the time being in force and that Section 9A of the FTDR Act does not elide or negate the power of the Central Government to impose restrictions on imports under sub-section (2) to Section 3 of the FTDR Act.
Issue before the Court
The notifications dated 29th March 2019 bearing S.O. Numbers. 1478-E,1479-E, 1480-E and 1481- were challenged for being in the nature of ‘quantitative restrictions’ under Section 9A of the FTDR Act, which could be only imposed by the Central Government after conducting such enquiry, as is deemed fit, and on being satisfied that the “goods are imported into India in such quantities and under such conditions as to cause or threatens to cause serious injury to domestic industry.” Further, in exercise of power under sub-section (3) to Section 9A the Central Government has framed the Safeguard Measures (Quantitative Restrictions) Rules, 2012, that prescribe mandatory and detailed procedure for initiation, investigation, hearing to parties and adjudication by the Authorised Officer, which statutory mandate has not been followed.
On applicability of Section 3(2) of the FTDR Act on imposition of quantitative restrictions on imports or exports
Section 3 of the FTDR Act, as enacted, had undergone amendments by addition of proviso to sub-section (2) and by insertion of sub-section (4) vide Act 25 of 2010.
Sub-section (1) of Section 3 states that the Central Government may, by an Order published in the Official Gazette, make provision for the development and regulation of foreign trade by facilitating imports and increasing exports. It is a general provision which has no reference to GATT-1994. It authorises the Central Government to publish an order in the Official Gazette for development and regulation of foreign trade, i.e. imports and exports.
Sub-section (2) states that the Central Government can, by an order in the Official Gazette, make a provision for prohibiting or restricting or otherwise regulating, in all or specified cases and subject to such exceptions, if any, the import or export of goods and after the amendment vide Act 25 of 2010, services or technology.
“Sub-section (2) to Section 3, therefore, authorises the Central Government to, by an Order published in the Official Gazette, make provisions restricting the imports or exports. Imposition of quantitative restrictions on imports or exports would clearly fall within sub-section (2) to Section 3 of the FTDR Act.”
On Section 9A of the FTDR Act being an escape provision
Section 9A has to be interpreted as an escape provision when the Central Government i.e. the Union of India may escape the rigours of paragraph (1) of Article XIX of General Agreement on Tariff and Trade (GATT)-1994. Section 9A is not a provision which incorporates or transposes paragraph (1) of Article XI into the domestic law either expressly or by necessary implication. To hold to the contrary, would mean holding that the Central Government has no right and power to impose ‘quantitative restrictions’ except under Section 9A of the FTDR Act. This would be contrary to the legislative intent and objective.
“Section 9A of the FTDR Act does not elide or negate the power of the Central Government to impose restrictions on imports under sub-section (2) to Section 3 of the FTDR Act.”
The impugned notifications would be valid as they have been issued in accordance with the power conferred in the Central Government in terms of sub-section (2) to Section 3 of the FTDR Act. The powers of the Central Government by an order imposing restriction on imports under sub-section (2) to Section 3 is not entirely curtailed by Section 9A of the FTDR Act.
[Union of India v. Agricas LLP, 2020 SCC OnLine SC 675, decided on 26.08.2020]