Legislation UpdatesStatutes/Bills/Ordinances

The Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Amendment Bill, 2020

Lok Sabha passed the Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Amendment Bill, 2020 on 21-09-2020 and today i.e. 23-09-2020, Rajya Sabha passed the Bill.

Why has the bill been proposed?

The annual inflow of foreign contribution has almost doubled between the years 2010 and 2019, but many recipients of foreign contribution have not utilised the same for the purpose for which they were registered or granted prior permission under the said Act. Many of them were also found wanting in ensuring basic statutory compliances such as submission of annual returns and maintenance of proper accounts.

This has led to a situation where the Central Government had to cancel certificates of registration of more than 19,000 recipient organisations, including non-Governmental organisations, during the period between 2011 and 2019.

Therefore, there is a need to streamline the provisions of the said Act by strengthening the compliance mechanism, enhancing transparency and accountability in the receipt and utilisation of foreign contribution worth thousands of crores of rupees every year and facilitating genuine non-Governmental organisations or associations who are working for the welfare of the society.

Highlights of the Bill are as follows:

Prohibition to accept foreign contribution [Section 3]

No foreign contribution shall be accepted by any public servant, Judge, Government servant or employee of any corporation or any other body controlled or owned by the Government.

Prohibition to transfer foreign contribution to other person [Section 7]

Now the bill proposes the prohibition to the transfer of foreign contribution to another person and the requirement of valid certificate has also been removed. i.e earlier a person could transfer to the person with a valid certificate, but that has been removed now.

Restriction to utilise foreign contribution for the administrative purpose [Section 8]

The foreign contributions received shall be used only up to 20% which earlier was 50%.

Registration of certain persons with Central Government

[Section 11]

Only after the prior permission of the Central Government a person who is not registered shall accept the foreign contribution:

Provided that the Central Government, on the basis of any information or report, and after holding a summary inquiry, has reason to believe that a person who has been granted prior permission has contravened any of the provisions of this Act, it may, pending any further inquiry, direct that such person shall not utilise the unutilised foreign contribution or receive the remaining portion of foreign contribution which has not been received or, as the case may be, any additional foreign contribution, without prior approval of the Central Government:

Provided further that if the person referred to in sub-section (1) or in this sub-section has been found guilty.”.

Grant of Certificate of Registration [Section 12]

Every person who makes an application for grant of a certificate shall be required to open an FCRA Account in the manner mention in Section 17 Aand mention the details of such an account in his application.

Mandatory Aadhaar [Section 12 A] [New Section]

As an identification document for the purpose of this Act, Aadhaar number for all Office bearer or directors of all NGOs and other organization which is eligible for foreign contribution is mandatory. However, a passport or overseas citizen of India card is required in the case of foreign nationals.

Suspension of Certificate [Section 13]

Time limit for suspension of Certificate issued under FCRA has been stated to be as either 180 days or such further period not exceeding 180 days, as may be specified.

Surrender of Certificate [Section 14 A] [New Section]

If the Central Government is satisfied after inquiry as it deems fit, it can permit a person to surrender the certificate.

Foreign Contribution through Scheduled Bank [Section 17]

Now, under this provision, every person who has been granted a certificate or prior permission under Section 12 shall receive foreign contribution only in an account designated as “FCRA Account” which shall be opened by him in such branch of the State Bank of India at New Delhi.

Along with the above stated key highlights, amendments under Section 15 and 16 have also been made which can be referred to in the bill below.

Please read the bill here: BILL


Parliament

Legislation UpdatesStatutes/Bills/Ordinances

The Institute of Teaching and Research in Ayurveda Bill 2020 has been passed by Rajya Sabha.

The Bill was earlier passed in Lok Sabha on 19-03-2020. This paves the way to establish a state-of-the-art Ayurvedic institution called the Institute of Teaching and Research in Ayurveda (ITRA) at Jamnagar, Gujarat, and to confer the status of Institution of National Importance (INI) to it.

Purpose of Establishment

The ITRA is sought to be established by conglomerating the presently existing Ayurveda institutes at Gujarat Ayurved University campus Jamnagar. This is a cluster of highly reputed institutions, namely, (a) Institute for Post Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, (b) Shree GulabKunverba Ayurveda Mahavidyalaya, and (c) Institute of Ayurvedic Pharmaceutical Sciences, (d) Maharshi Patanjali Institute for Yoga Naturopathy Education & Research (to be made part of the Department of Swasthvritta of the proposed ITRA). These institutions had come up over the past many decades, and together made a unique family of Ayurveda institutions existing in close proximity.

It is expected that the enactment of the proposal will further provide autonomy to the institute to develop patterns of teaching in undergraduate and postgraduate education in Ayurveda and Pharmacy. The synergies among the different constituent institutions will help ITRA to demonstrate high standards of such education and to emerge as a lighthouse institution to the entire AYUSH Sector. It is expected to provide the highest level of training of personnel in all important branches of Ayurveda including Pharmacy, and to take up in-depth study and research in the field of Ayurveda.

ITRA will be the first institution with INI status in the AYUSH sector, and this will enable the institution to be independent and innovative in the matter of deciding course content and pedagogy. The decision comes at a time when global interest in health solutions based on traditional wisdom is at an unprecedentedly high level and ITRA is poised to take Ayurveda education to new vistas.


Parliament

[Source: PIB]

Case BriefsHigh Courts

Madhya Pradesh High Court: A Division Bench of Ajay Kumar Mittal, CJ and Vijay Kumar Shukla, J., dismissed the Public Interest Litigation  for postponement of elections to the three vacancies of the state in the Rajya Sabha, on the ground of maintainability.

The Election Commission had announced that the Poll for three vacancies of the state of MP in the Rajya Sabha will be held on June 19, 2020. Petitioner’s Counsel Abhinav Dhanodkar, had submitted that more than 1/10th of the house will not be represented in the election, if the 24 seats lying vacant in the State Legislative Assembly were not filled up. He had asserted that as per Section 152 of the Representation of People Act, members of the Legislative Assembly will be electors i.e. representing 230 constituencies. However in this case, 24 constituents would be deprived of their rights or representation and the voting by the members will make sufficient difference in the result of the poll. The Standing counsel for the respondents Mr.  Siddharth Seth, argued that in case, there was violation of any statutory right, the petitioner would have a remedy of filing an “election petition” raising all the issues and contentions therein and the petitioner was neither a voter in the elections to be conducted for Rajya Sabha nor any statutory right of the petitioner had been violated.

The Division Bench concurred with the preliminary submissions put forth by the Commission on the ground of maintainability. It observed that the grounds urged by the Petitioner for deferment of the elections do not create any justification to “bypass” the mandate of Article 329 (b) of the Constitution. The Court while dismissing the petition held that they decline to entertain the present writ petition leaving it open to the petitioner to take recourse to the remedy, as may be available to him, in accordance with law.[Aman Sharma v. Chief Election Commissioner, 2020 SCC OnLine MP 1257 , decided on 17-06-2020]

COVID 19Hot Off The PressNews

On 25.02.2020, Election Commission of India announced elections to the Council of States to fill 55 seats of Members from 17 States, retiring in the month of April,2020, which were notified vide Notification No. 318/CS-Multi/2020(1) dated 06.03.2020. After the last date of withdrawal on 18.03.2020, respective Returning Officers declared 37 seats from 10 States filled in uncontested. Now, as per the reports received from the concerned Returning Officers, the biennial elections for 18 seats from the States of Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya and Rajasthan are to be conducted  on 26.03.2020 (Thursday) and the date before which election was to be completed as earlier announced by the Commission was 30.03.2020 (Monday).

            On 11.03.2020, World Health Organization has declared Novel Coronavirus COVID-19 a global pandemic. Ministry of Health & Family Affairs and Department of Personnel & Training, Government of India have issued various guidelines and instructions to monitor and contain the transmission of COVID-19. Government of India, vide its press note dated 22.03.2020, has asked all the State Governments to take all measures to break the chain of transmission of COVID-19. This includes suspension of all train services till 31.03.2020 including sub urban rail services; closure of all activities except essential services such as hospitals, telecom, medicine shops, provision stores etc. Subsequently, on 23.03.2020 it has also been informed that the operations of domestic schedule commercial airlines shall cease operations with effective from the mid night 23.59 IST hours on 24.03.2020. State Governments have issued various orders including curb on local transportation accordingly for management and containment of COVID-19. The States of Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya and Rajasthan have issued orders of lock down to contain the transmission of COVID-19.

            Commission has reviewed in detail the matter. The prevailing unforeseen situation of public health emergency indicates the need for avoidance of possibilities of gatherings of any nature, which expose all concerned to possible health hazard. The poll process in the above said elections would necessarily include the gathering of polling officials, agents of political parties, support officials and members of respective Legislative Assemblies on the poll day, which may not be suitable in view of the prevailing unforeseen situation and related advisories in the country.

            Section 153 of the Representation of the People Act, 1951 specifies that the Election Commission for reasons which it considers sufficient, may extend the time for the completion of any election by making necessary amendments in the notification issued by it under section 30 or sub-section (1) of section 39; and accordingly, the Election Commission has deferred the poll and extended the period of said election under the provisions of section 153 of the said Act. The list of contesting candidates, already published for the said elections by the respective Returning Officers shall remain valid for the purposes of remaining activities, as prescribed under the said notification. Fresh date of poll and counting for the said biennial elections shall be announced in due course after reviewing the prevailing situation.


Election Commission of India

[Press Release dt. 24-03-2020]

[Source: PIB]

Legislation UpdatesStatutes/Bills/Ordinances

The Central Sanskrit Universities Bill, 2020 has been passed by the Parliament.

The Lok Sabha had already passed the Bill on 12th December 2019. Speaking after the passing of the Bill, Union HRD Minister Shri Ramesh Pokhriyal ‘Nishank’ thanked the Members of the House for their support in passing the Bill .This bill will convert (i) Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan, New Delhi, (ii) Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeeth, New Delhi, and (iii) Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeeth, Tirupati into Central Sanskrit Universities.

Purpose of introducing the Bill:

The upgradation of three Deemed to be Universities in Sanskrit, namely, Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan, Delhi, Sri Lal Bahadur Shastri Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeeth, New Delhi and Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeeth, Triputi into Central Universities through the Central Sanskrit Universities Bill, 2019 would enhance the status of these Universities and will give a boost to Post Graduate, Doctoral and Post Doctoral education and Research in the field of Sanskrit and Shastraic education. It would help in getting better faculty, attract foreign students, Sanskrit scholars, foreign faculty of international repute and help in international collaborations with global Universities across the world. This will also help in enhancing the opportunities for imparting education in the field of Indian Philosophy, Yoga, Ayurveda and Naturopathy

Amendments to existing lawsLegislation Updates

Parliament passed The Mineral Laws (Amendment) Bill, 2020 for amendments in Mines & Mineral (Development and Regulation) Act 1957 and The Coal Mines (Special Provisions) Act, 2015. Rajya Sabha passed the bill today while Lok Sabha already passed this bill on 6th March, 2020.

The Mineral Laws (Amendment) Bill, 2020, will open a new era in Indian coal & mining sector specially to promote Ease of Doing Business. Union Coal & Mines Minister Sh. Pralhad Joshi said that this Bill will transform the mining sector in the country boosting coal production and reducing dependence on imports.

The amended provisions clearly provide that companies which do not possess any prior coal mining experience in India and/or have mining experience in other minerals or in other countries can participate in auction of coal/lignite blocks. This will not only increase participation in coal/lignite block auctions, but also facilitate the implementation of FDI policy in the coal sector.

Now, the companies which are not ‘engaged in specified end-use’ can also participate in auctions of Schedule II and III coal mines. The removal of the end use restriction would allow wider participation in auction of coal mines for a variety of purposes such as own consumption, sale or for any other purpose, as may be specified by the Central Government.

The Bill also allows prospecting licence-cum-mining lease (PL-cum-ML) for coal/lignite which increases the availability of coal & lignite blocks, and coal blocks of varying grades in a wide geographical distribution will be available for allocation.

The successful bidders/allottees have now been entitled to utilize mined coal in any of its plants or plants of its subsidiary or holding company. Amendments also provide for allocation of the coal mine to the next successful bidder or allottee, subsequent to termination of its allocation along with the matters incidental to it. A provision has also been made for appointment of designated custodian for management of the mines, apart from Schedule II mines, which have come under production and whose vesting/ allotment order has been cancelled.

With the amendments, environment and forest clearances along with other approvals and clearances shall automatically get transferred to the new owners of mineral blocks for a period of two years from the date of grant of new lease. This will allow new owners to continue with hassle free mining operations. During the period, they may apply for the fresh licence beyond the period of two years.

The auction of lease of mines can now be started before expiry of lease period. It will enable the state government to take advance action for auction of mineral blocks so that the new lease holder could be decided before the existing lease gets expired. This will help in seamless production of minerals in the country.

The new provisions will also augment the exploration of the deep seated minerals and minerals of national interest by allowing Non Exclusive Reconnaissance Permit (NERP) holders to apply for composite licence or Mining Lease (PL-cum-ML). Various repetitive and redundant provisions of MMDR Act and CMSP Act have also been omitted for Ease of Doing Business.

The Bill replaces the ordinance for amendment of the MMDR Act 1957 and CMSP Act which was promulgated on 11th January 2020.

Also read:

Lok Sabha passes — Mineral Laws (Amendment) Bill, 2020


Ministry of Coal

[Source: PIB]

[Press Release dt. 12-03-2020]

Legislation UpdatesStatutes/Bills/Ordinances

Parliament passes the Citizenship (Amendment) Bill, 2019 today.

The Bill has been passed with a majority of 125.


On 10-12-2019, the Citizenship (Amendment) Bill, 2019 was passed by Lok Sabha with a majority of 311 in favour of the Bill.

Following are provisions to be amended as placed in the Bill:

  • Amendment of Section 2:

In the Citizenship Act, 1955 (hereinafter referred to as the principal Act), in section 2, in sub-section (1), in clause (b), the following proviso shall be inserted, namely:—

“Provided that any person belonging to Hindu, Sikh, Buddhist, Jain, Parsi or Christian community from Afghanistan, Bangladesh or Pakistan, who entered into India on or before the 31st day of December, 2014 and who has been exempted by the
Central Government by or under clause (c) of sub-section (2) of section 3 of the Passport (Entry into India) Act, 1920 or from the application of the provisions of the Foreigners Act, 1946 or any rule or order made thereunder, shall not be treated as illegal migrant for the purposes of this Act.”

  • Insertion of new Section 6B

Special provisions as to the citizenship of person covered by the proviso to clause (b) of sub-section (1) of Section 2.

  • Amendment of Section 7D

In section 7D of the principal Act,—

(i) after clause (d), the following clause shall be inserted, namely:—

“(da) the Overseas Citizen of India Cardholder has violated any of the provisions of this Act or provisions of any other law for time being in force as may be specified by the Central Government in the notification published in the Official Gazette; or”.

(ii) after clause (f), the following proviso shall be inserted, namely:—

“Provided that no order under this section shall be passed unless the Overseas Citizen of India Cardholder has been given a reasonable opportunity of being heard.”

  • Amendment of Section 18

In section 18 of the principal Act, in sub-section (2), after clause (ee), the following clause shall be inserted, namely:—

“(eei) the conditions, restrictions and manner for granting certificate of registration or certificate of naturalisation under sub-section (1) of section 6B;”

  • Amendment of Third Schedule

In the Third Schedule to the principal Act, in clause (d), the following proviso shall be inserted, namely:—

‘Provided that for the person belonging to Hindu, Sikh, Buddhist, Jain, Parsi or Christian community in Afghanistan, Bangladesh or Pakistan, the aggregate period of residence or service of Government in India as required under this clause shall be read as “not less than five years” in place of “not less than eleven years”.

*Citizenship (Amendment) Bill, 2019 passed by Lok Sabha


Discussion in Rajya Sabha has begun: [LIVE UPDATES]

  • Amit Shah: There has been an almost 20% decline each in the population of religious minorities in both Pakistan and present-day Bangladesh. Either they were killed or they fled to India for shelter [ANI]
  • Shah says, CAB was in their manifesto and it is their duty to bring it in the House for discussion.
  • No Muslim in India needs to worry due to this Bill. Don’t get scared if someone tries to scare you. — Home Minister
  • Anand Sharma speaks on the Bill in opposition
  • Sharma: It fails the morality test, it is divisive and discriminatory
  • The bill that you have brought is an assault on the very foundation of the Indian constitution, it is an assault on the Republic of India. It hurts the soul of India, Says Sharma [ANI]
  • JP Nadda speaking in favour of Citizenship Bill
  • This Bill is in national interest: Nadda
  • Derek O Brien: I read that PM said this will be written in golden letters. I will tell you where it will be written, it will be written on the grave of the father of the nation, but which father of the nation? In Karachi, on Jinnah’s grave [ANI]
  • RCP Singh, JDU in Rajya Sabha: We support this bill. The bill is very clear, it gives citizenship to persecuted minorities from three of our neigbouring countries, but here debate is being done on our Indian Muslim brothers.[ANI]
  • P. Chidambaram speaks on the Bill.
  • Chidambaram: Ultimately the non-elected people i.e. the lawyers, judges will be deciding on the Bill and it is a question on the Parliament.
  • Chidambaram: This government is ramming through this Bill to advance its Hindutva agenda. This is a sad day. I am absolutely clear that this law will be struck off. [ANI]
  • Sanjay Raut of Shiv Sena speaks on the Bill. “We don’t need to prove our nationalism”
  • Satish Chandra Mishra of BSP Speaks in opposition to the Bill.
  • Praful Patel of NCP is now speaking.
  • Bill is being passed in a hurry -Praful Patel
  • Kapil Sibal speaks on the Bill.
  • Sibal: I request you Home Minister “rise above the politics!”
  • Sibal: They are targeting a community without naming it
  • This Bill is not tenable-Sibal
  • Those who have no idea of India cannot protect the idea of India -Kapil Sibal
  • Sanjay Singh of AAP Party opposes the Bill.
  • D Kupendra Reddy, JD(S): This Bill will be dilution of our secularism policy in this country. I strongly oppose this Bill. I recommend that the Bill be sent to a select committee of Parliament for scrutiny.[ANI]
  • Home Minister: Neither CAB is anti-Muslim, nor abrogation of Article 370 is anti-Muslim, Triple Talaq Bill is not anti-Muslim either. Triple Talaq is the Bill to give rights to crores of Muslim women in the country. [ANI]
  • CAB won’t hurt the citizenship of the Muslims.
  • CAB won’t be referred to Select Committee
Hot Off The PressNews

Following are the Bills that have received President’s assent in this week of the Parliament Sessions:

  • The Chit Funds (Amendment) Act, 2019
  • The Jallianwala Bagh National Memorial (Amendment) Act, 2019
  • The Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Act, 2019
  • The Prohibition of Electronic Cigarettes (Production, Manufacture, Import, Export, Transport, Sale, Distribution, Storage and Advertisement) Act, 2019

Read the process of how a Bill becomes an Act below:

The basic function of Parliament is to make laws. All legislative proposals have to be brought in the form of Bills before Parliament. A Bill is a statute in draft and cannot become law unless it has received the approval of both the Houses of Parliament and the assent of the President of India.

The process of law making begins with the introduction of a Bill in either House of Parliament. A Bill can be introduced either by a Minister or a member other than a Minister. In the former case, it is called a Government Bill and in the latter case, it is known as a Private Member’s Bill.

A Bill undergoes three readings in each House, i.e., the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha, before it is submitted to the President for assent.

First Reading

The First Reading refers to (i) motion for leave to introduce a Bill in the House on the adoption of which the Bill is introduced; or(ii) in the case of a Bill originated in and passed by the other House, the laying on the Table of the House of the Bill, as passed by the other House.

Second Reading

The Second Reading consists of two stages.The “First Stage” constitutes discussion on the principles of the Bill and its provisions generally on any of the following motions – that the Bill be taken into consideration; or that the Bill be referred to a Select Committee of the House; or that the Bill be referred to a Joint Committee of the Houses with the concurrence of the other House; or that the Bill be circulated for the purpose of eliciting opinion thereon. The “Second Stage” constitutes the clause by clause consideration of the Bill, as introduced in the House or as reported by a Select or Joint Committee, as the case may be.

In the case of a Bill passed by Rajya Sabha and transmitted to Lok Sabha, it is first laid on the Table of Lok Sabha by the Secretary-General, Lok Sabha. In this case the Second Reading refers to the motion (i) that the Bill, as passed by Rajya Sabha, be taken into consideration; or (ii) that the Bill be referred to a Select Committee (if the Bill has not already been referred to a Joint Committee of the Houses).

Third Reading

The Third Reading refers to the discussion on the motion that the Bill or the Bill, as amended, be passed.

Almost similar procedure is followed in Rajya Sabha in respect of Bills introduced in that House.

After a Bill has been finally passed by the Houses of Parliament, it is submitted to the President for his assent. After a Bill has received the assent of the President, it becomes the law of the land.

Reference of Bills to Departmentally Related Standing Committees

The year 1993 ushered in a new era in the history of Indian Parliament when 17 Departmentally Related Standing Committees were constituted. The number of Standing Committees has now been increased from 17 to 24. While 8 Committees work under the direction of the Chairman, Rajya Sabha, 16 Committees work under the direction of the Speaker, Lok Sabha.

One of the important functions of these Committees is to examine such Bills introduced in either House as are referred to them by the Chairman, Rajya Sabha or the Speaker, Lok Sabha, as the case may be, and make report thereon.

The reports of the Standing Committees have persuasive value. In case the Government accepts any of the recommendations of the Committee, it may bring forward official amendments at the consideration stage of the Bill or may withdraw the Bill reported by the Standing Committee and bring forward a new Bill after incorporating the recommendations of the Standing Committee.

BILLS BEFORE A SELECT OR JOINT COMMITTEE

If a Bill is referred to a Select or a Joint Committee, it considers the Bill clause-by-clause just as the House does. Amendments can be moved to the various clauses by the members of the Committee. After the report of the Select or Joint Committee has been presented to the House, the member-in-charge of the Bill usually moves the motion for consideration of the Bill, as reported by the Select or Joint Committee, as the case may be.

A Money Bill or a Financial Bill containing any of the provisions calculated to make a Bill a Money Bill, however, cannot be referred to a Joint Committee of the Houses.

RESTRICTION ON INTRODUCTION OF CERTAIN CATEGORIES OF BILLS IN RAJYA SABHA

A Bill may be introduced in either House of Parliament. However,a Money Bill can not be introduced in Rajya Sabha.It can only be introduced in Lok Sabha with prior recommendation of the President for introduction in Lok Sabha. If any question arises whether a Bill is a Money Bill or not, the decision of the Speaker thereon is final.

Rajya Sabha is required to return a Money Bill passed and transmitted by Lok Sabha within a period of 14 days from the date of its receipt. Rajya Sabha may return a Money Bill transmitted to it with or without recommendations. It is open to Lok Sabha to accept or reject all or any of the recommendations of Rajya Sabha.

However, if Rajya Sabha does not return a Money Bill within the prescribed period of 14 days, the Bill is deemed to havebeen passed by both Houses of Parliament at the expiry of the said period of 14 days in the form in which it was passed by Lok Sabha.

Like Money Bills, Bills which, inter alia, contain provisions for any of the matters attracting sub-clauses (a) to (f) of clause (1) of article 110 can also not be introduced in Rajya Sabha. They can be introduced only in Lok Sabha on the recommendation of the President. However, other restrictions in regard to Money Bills do not apply to such Bills.

CONSTITUTION AMENDMENT BILLS

The Constitution vests in Parliament the power to amend the Constitution. Constitution Amendment Bills can be introduced in eitherHouse of Parliament. While motions for introduction of Constitution Amendment Bills are adopted by simple majority , a majority of the total membership of the House and a majority of not less than two-thirds of the members present and voting is required for adoption of effective clauses and motions for consideration and passing of these Bills. Constitution Amendment Bills affecting vital issues as enlisted in the proviso to article 368(2) of the Constitution after having been passed by the Houses of Parliament, have also to be ratified by not less than one half of the State Legislatures.

JOINT SITTING

Article 108(1) of the Constitution provides that when a Bill (other than a Money Bill or a Bill seeking to amend the Constitution) passed by one House is rejected by the other House or the Houses have finally disagreed as to the amendments made in the Bill or more than six months lapse from the date of the receipt of the Bill by the other House without the Bill being passed by it, the President may, unless the Bill has lapsed by reason of dissolution of Lok Sabha, notify to the Houses by message, if they are sitting, or by public notification, if they are not sitting, his intention to summon them to meet in a Joint Sitting.

The President has made the Houses of Parliament (Joint Sittings and Communications) Rules in terms of clause (3) of article 118 of the Constitution to regulate the procedure with respect to Joint Sitting of Houses.

So far, there have been three occasions when Bills were considered and passed in a Joint Sitting of the Houses of Parliament.

ASSENT TO BILLS

After a Bill has been passed by both the Houses of Parliament, it is presented to the President for his assent. The President mayeither assent to the Bill, withhold his assent, or return the Bill, if it is not a Money Bill, with a message for reconsideration of the Bill, or any specified provisions thereof, or for considering the desirability of introducing any such amendments as he may recommend in his message.

The President may either give or withhold his assent to a Money Bill. A Money Bill can not be returned to the House by the President for reconsideration. Also, the President is bound to give hisassent to Constitution Amendment Bill passed by Parliament by the prescribed special majority and, where necessary, ratified by the requisite number of State Legislatures.

Hot Off The PressNews

The applicants of all Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) can directly file a Special Leave Petition (SLP) before the Hon’ble Supreme Court against any order of Intellectual Property Appellate Board (IPAB). They can also prefer a writ petition before the High Court against orders of IPAB and IP offices by invoking Article 226 of the Constitution of India and then file SLP before the Supreme Court.

Ministry of Law & Justice only vets the amendments proposed by the concerned Ministry or Department. As provisions for filing SLP directly against orders of IPAB and also against writ petitions disposed of by High Court with respect to orders of IPAB and IP offices are in place and there is no proposal under consideration for such amendment by Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT).

This information was given by the Minister of Commerce and Industry, Piyush Goyal, in a written reply in the Rajya Sabha today.

Hot Off The PressNews

The Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment introduced a Bill titled “The Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Bill, 2019” in the Lok Sabha In order to provide for the protection of rights of transgender persons and their welfare.

The Bill was passed by the Lok Sabha on 05.08.2019 and by the Rajya Sabha on 26.11.2019.

The Ministry had released Rs. 1.00 Crore to National Backward Classes Finance and Development Corporation (NBCFDC) for conducting skill development training programme for the members of Transgender Community during the financial year 2018-19. At present, there is no reservation for Transgender persons in public sector employment.

This information was given by Minister of State for Social Justice and Empowerment Shri Rattan Lal Kataria in a written reply in Rajya Sabha today.


Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment

[Source: PIB]

[Press Release dt. 04-12-2019]

Cabinet DecisionsLegislation Updates

As per the reports of ANI, the Citizenship Amendment Bill, 2019 has been approved by the Union Cabinet.

It is said that it will be introduced in the Winter Session of Parliament.

Provisions that would be introduced for further discussion in the Parliament and have been incorporated in the bill are as follows:

  • In the Citizenship Act, 1955 (hereinafter referred to as the principal Act), in section 2, in sub-section (1), after clause (b), the following provisos shall be inserted, namely:—

“Provided that persons belonging to minority communities, namely, Hindus, Sikhs, Buddhists, Jains, Parsis and Christians from Afghanistan, Bangladesh and Pakistan, who have been exempted by the Central Government by or under clause (c) of sub- section (2) of section 3 of the Passport (Entry into India) Act, 1920 or from the application of the provisions of the Foreigners Act, 1946 or any order made thereunder, shall not be treated as illegal migrants for the purposes of that Act:

Provided further that on and from the date of commencement of the Citizenship (Amendment) Act, 2019, any proceeding pending against any person referred to in the first proviso shall be abated and such person shall be eligible to apply for naturalisation under Section 6.”

  • In the principal Act, in section 7D,—

(i) after clause (d), the following clause shall be inserted namely:—

“(da) the Overseas Citizen of India Cardholder has violated any of the provisions of this Act or provisions of any other law for the time being in force as may be specified by the Central Government by notification published in the Official Gazette; or”;

(ii) after clause (f), the following proviso shall be inserted, namely:—

“Provided that no order under this section shall be passed unless the Overseas Citizen of India Cardholder has been given a reasonable opportunity of being heard.”

  • In the principal Act, in the Third Schedule, in clause (d), the following proviso shall be inserted, namely:—

“Provided that for the persons belonging to minority communities, namely, Hindus, Sikhs, Buddhists, Jains, Parsis and Christians from Afghanistan, Bangladesh and Pakistan, the aggregate period of residence or service of a Government in India as required under this clause shall be read as “not less than six years” in place of “not less than eleven years”.

Legislation UpdatesStatutes/Bills/Ordinances

Rajya Sabha clears passage for the SPG Amendment Bill, 2019 today.

Special Protection Group (Amendment) Bill, 2019 is a bill introduced further to amend the Special Protection Group Act, 1988.

Amendment of Section 4

2. In section 4 of the Special Protection Group Act, 1988,—

(i) for sub-section (1), the following sub-section shall be substituted, namely:—

“(1) There shall be an armed force of the Union called the Special Protection Group for providing proximate security to,—

(a) the Prime Minister and members of his immediate family residing with him at his official residence; and

(b) any former Prime Minister and such members of his immediate family as are residing with him at the residence allotted to him, for a period of five years from the date he ceases to hold the office of Prime Minister.”;

(ii) in sub-section (1A), for clause (b), the following clause shall be substituted, namely:—

“(b) where the proximate security is withdrawn from a former Prime Minister, such proximate security shall also stand withdrawn from members of immediate family of such former Prime Minister.”

 

Hot Off The PressNews

Minister of Law and Justice, Ravi Shankar Prasad made a statement with respect to the “Reported Use of Spyware Pegasus to Compromise Phone Data of Some Persons through WhatsApp” as raised by the Minister of Parliament Digvijay Singh.

On 31-10-2019, there was news in Indian media reporting breach of data of few Indians via WhatsApp through spyware named Pegasus developed and marketed by an Israel based company namely NSO. The news also reported about a lawsuit filed by WhatsApp on 31-10-2019 in a Court at California, USA alleging that the Israeli NSO Group had targeted some 1,400 WhatsApp users globally with this spyware and had violated US and California laws as well as WhatsApp’s terms-of-service. The news report conveyed that more than 100 persons in India might have been affected by this Spyware. It has also been alleged by WhatsApp in their submission filed before the Court that the NSO Group has sold Pegasus spyware to government and private agencies.

In this matter, Ministry of Electronics & Information Technology (MeitY) took cognizance of the news reports and sought a report from the WhatsApp through an email sent to them on 1st November and seeking WhatsApp response by 4th November. WhatsApp sent a mail on 2nd November 2019 communicating the aspects relating to the exploitation of a vulnerability in their platform by spyware called Pegasus, developed by Israeli agency named NSO. As per WhatsApp, they had communicated this vulnerability to CERT-In on 20-05-2019 after it was detected and fixed in mid-May 2019.

As per WhatsApp, Pegasus was designed to be installed remotely on mobile devices using the Android, iOS, and BlackBerry operating systems. The NSO/Pegasus exploited vulnerabilities in operating systems and applications and used other malware delivery methods, like spear-phishing messages containing links to malicious code. According to media reports Pegasus could be surreptitiously installed on a victim’s phone without the victim taking any action.

“The Supreme Court has upheld privacy as a fundamental right. But the Supreme Court has also stated that a terrorist has no right to privacy; and the Supreme Court in the same judgment has also stated that a corrupt person has no right to privacy. Therefore, that is our Government’s commitment to the freedom of speech and expression on social media. Technology has brought empowerment. We need to understand that. But while technology creates opportunity, technology also creates challenges, and this privacy was the first challenge which the Supreme Court has already held. But, one thing we all need to understand. We all work under the overarching system of our Constitution where fundamental right freedoms are there, but, it is also subject to reasonable restrictions. Article 19(2) to (6) clearly says that in the interest of sovereignty and integrity of India, public order, friendly relations with foreign country, these can be reasonably controlled”.

“It is a coincidence that when the Government of India is pressing for traceability of offensive messages, America, Australia and England are joining that battle. Then suddenly a case is filed. We have not been given any name till date. We have given notice to CERT-In and sent a notice to them again. They have expressed their regret. We have said that we will audit your entire processes. We have also sent a notice to the NSO. A fight is going on in the US between The NSO and Whats App. It is their private battle where coincidentally names have come, including some of Indians.

The I.T. Act has a provision in which anyone can complain if he wants. Which has a fine of five lakh and a provision of three years’ imprisonment. Not even a single FIR has been filed till date. No complaint is made in the IT Ministry till date by anyone. But suddenly we find that the names come in the media and thereafter it becomes a political issue.

WhatsApp has not given us 121 names yet. Our view is very clear that whoever has a complaint, should file a case. The Government of India will help in that inquiry. But Government should not be involved into any phishing inquiry.


Rajya Sabha

Legislation UpdatesStatutes/Bills/Ordinances

Rajya Sabha passes the Chit Fund (Amendment) Bill, 2019.

The said bill was passed by Lok Sabha on 20-11-2019.

Purpose of the Bill:

In order to facilitate orderly growth of the chit fund sector, to remove bottlenecks being faced by the chit fund industry and to enable greater financial access to people, the Chit Funds (Amendment) Bill, 2019, inter alia, proposes the following, namely:—

(a) insertion of the words “fraternity fund”, “Rotating Savings and Credit Institution” in clause (b) of Section 2 which defines “chit” and also in Section 11, to signify its inherent nature and distinguish its working from “prize chits” which are banned under a separate legislation;

(b) to substitute the expressions “gross chit amount”, “share of discount” and “net chit amount” for the expressions “chit amount”, “dividend” and “prize amount” respectively in the Act, in order to remove confusion with respect to illegal prize chits;

(c) to revise the prescribed ceiling of aggregate chit amount from rupees one lakh to rupees three lakhs for individuals and from rupees six lakhs to rupees eighteen lakhs for firms, which have not been revised since 2001;

(d) to allow the mandatory presence of two subscribers, as required under sub-section (2) of Section 16, either in person or through video conferencing duly recorded by the foreman;

(e) where the presence of the mandatory two subscribers is through video conferencing, the minutes of the proceedings to be signed by them within two days of the date of the draw;

(f) to increase the ceiling of foreman’s commission from five per cent. to seven per cent. under Section 21;

(g) to enable the foreman to have a right to lien against the credit balance in other non-prized chits;

(h) to amend clause (b) of Section 85, so as to confer power upon the State Government to specify the amount by notification, upto which any chit fund shall be exempted under the Act.

*Please follow the link to read the Bill — Chit Fund (Amendment) Bill, 2019

Hot Off The PressNews

List of Bills for the Winter Session:

Hot Off The PressNews

What does Zero Hour refer to?

The Zero Hour refers to the time immediately following the Question Hour in both the Houses of Parliament. During this hour, parliamentarians can raise matters of great importance without the mandatory ten days advance notice.

As reported by ANI,

“A discussion on air pollution and climate change is expected to take place in the Lok Sabha on Tuesday afternoon on the second day of the Parliament’s winter session.”

The discussion assumes significance as Delhi and its adjoining regions have been battling severe pollution levels in the last few days mainly due to stubble burning by farmers in Haryana and Punjab. Air quality in the national capital deteriorates every winter owing to incidents of farm fires in the two states.


[Source: ANI]


Hot Off The PressNews

The Winter Session of Parliament begins today, following are the key bills that are likely to be taken up for discussion:

  • Citizenship Amendment Bill
  • Companies (Second Amendment) Bill
  • Competition (Amendment) Bill
  • Personal Data Protection Bill
  • National River Ganga (Rejuvenation, Protection and Management) Bill
  • The Multi-State Cooperative Societies (Amendment) Bill
  • The Insolvency and Bankruptcy (Second Amendment) Bill, 2019

Two ordinances which were cleared by the Union Cabinet – one reducing corporate tax rates for new and domestic manufacturing companies to arrest a slowdown in the economy and boost growth, and the other banning sale, manufacture and storage of e-cigarettes in India – are also likely to be tabled in the Winter Session of the Parliament.

About 50 bills are scheduled to be presented in the parliament and it will continue till 13-12-2019.

Prime Minister Modi said the Winter session will be the last session of Parliament in 2019 and a very significant one.

“This is the 250th session of the Rajya Sabha. During this session on November 26, there is Constitution Day, when our Constitution completes 70 years. The Constitution inculcates the unity, integrity, diversity and beauty of the country and is a driving force for the country.”

Rajya Sabha Chairman Shri M.Venkaiah Naidu sharing the remarkable journey of the house said that, from passing the Hindu Marriage and Divorce Bill in 1952 to the Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Marriage) Bill in 2019 (Triple Talak Bill), from imposition of additional excise duty on dhotis in 1953 to introduction of Goods and Services Tax in 2017, from passing the Industrial Disputes (Amendment) Bill in 1954 to the New Delhi International Arbitration Bill in 2019, from the passage of the Andhra State Bill in 1953 to the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Bill in 2019, from clearing  the All India Institution of Medical Sciences Bill in 1955 to the National Medical Council Bill in 2019, from setting up of the University Grants Commission in 1954 to empowering the children with the Right to Free and Compulsory Education in 2009 and from passing the Preventive Detention (Second Amendment) Bill in 1952 to the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Amendment Bill in 2019, Rajya Sabha has come a long way in addressing the challenges faced and meeting the requirements of the nation from time to time.

Hot Off The PressNews

The First Session of the Parliament after the 2019 General Elections, the most productive session in the longest time was conducted. In total 30 Bills have been passed this session in 35 sittings.

Bills passed by both the houses of the Parliament are listed below:

  1. The Special Economic Zones (Amendment) Bill, 2019
  2. The Jammu and Kashmir Reservation (Amendment) Bill, 2019
  3. The Homoeopathy Central Council (Amendment) Bill, 2019
  4. The Central Educational Institutions (Reservation in Teachers’ Cadre) Bill, 2019
  5. The Indian Medical Council (Amendment) Bill, 2019
  6. The Dentists (Amendment) Bill, 2019
  7. The Aadhar and Other Laws (Amendment) Bill, 2019
  8. The Central Universities (Amendment) Bill, 2019
  9. The National Investigation Agency (Amendment) Bill, 2019
  10. The New Delhi International Arbitration Centre Bill, 2019
  11. The Appropriation (No. 2) Bill, 2019
  12. The Finance (No. 2) Bill, 2019
  13. The Protection of Human Rights (Amendment) Bill, 2019
  14. The Right to Information (Amendment) Bill, 2019
  15. The Banning of Unregulated Deposit Schemes Bill, 2019
  16. The Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Marriage) Bill, 2019
  17. The Companies (Amendment) Bill, 2019
  18. The Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (Amendment) Bill, 2019
  19. The Arbitration and Conciliation (Amendment) Bill, 2019
  20. The Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (Amendment) Bill, 2019
  21. The Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Amendment Bill, 2019
  22. The Codes on Wages, 2019
  23. The Repealing and Amending Bill, 2019
  24. The Airport Economic Regulatory Authority of India (Amendment) Bill, 2019
  25. The Motor Vehicles (Amendment) Bill, 2019
  26. The National Medical Commission Bill, 2019
  27. The Consumer Protection Bill, 2019
  28. The Public Premises (Eviction of Unauthorised Occupants) Amendment Bill, 2019
  29. The Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Bill, 2019.
  30. The Supreme Court (Number of Judges) Amendment Bill, 2019

Legislations relating to almost all walks of socio and economic activities have been passed. 30 Bills have been passed by both the Houses of Parliament in this Session which is a record in single first/effective Session after the constitution of new Lok Sabha.

Most important business transacted during this Session is the abrogation of certain provisions from Article 370 and Presidential Orders thereunder.  This will ensure equal opportunities to all sections of Society in Jammu & Kashmir particularly with the restoration of applicability of the provisions of the Constitution of India and all socio-economic legislations thereby ensuring rule of law and equity.  Further, for ensuring better administration and for curbing terrorism, the State of Jammu & Kashmir has been reorganized with the formation of two Union Territories – Jammu &Kashmir and Ladakh. 

Legislation UpdatesStatutes/Bills/Ordinances

Jammu and Kashmir Reservation (Second Amendment) Bill, 2019 has been introduced in the Rajya Sabha today, which will amend the Jammu and Kashmir Reservation Act, 2004.

Following is the objective of the same as stated in the bill:

The Jammu and Kashmir Reservation Act, 2004 (the Act) was enacted with a view to provide for reservation in appointment and admission in Professional Institutions, for the members of the Scheduled Castes, the Scheduled Tribes and other socially and educationally backward classes.

2. The Jammu and Kashmir Reservation Rules, 2005 made under the Act provide for the manner of reservation to the Scheduled Castes, the Scheduled Tribes and socially and educationally backward classes. The expression “socially and educationally backward classes” includes the residents of backward areas, Actual Line of Control, International Border and social castes.

3. Vide the Constitution (One Hundred and Third Amendment) Act, 2019 (the Constitution Act, 2019) the Government of India has extended ten per cent. reservation to the persons belonging to economically weaker sections in matters of admission to educational institutions and public employment. Subsequently, to extend the provisions of the Constitution Act, 2019 to the State of Jammu and Kashmir, the President issued the Constitution (Application to Jammu and Kashmir) Amendment Order, 2019 on the 1st day of March, 2019.

4. In order to implement the provisions of the Constitution Act, 2019 in the State of Jammu and Kashmir, it has become necessary to amend certain provisions of the Jammu and Kashmir Reservation Act, 2004. Accordingly, the Jammu and Kashmir Reservation (Second Amendment) Bill, 2019, inter alia, provides for the following, namely:—

(i) to amend Section 2 of the Act, so as to define the “economically weaker sections” to mean such categories as may be notified by the Government from time to time, on the basis of family income and other indicators of economic disadvantage,
other than the classes or categories defined in clauses (m), (n) and (o) of the said section;

(ii) to amend sub-section (1) of Section 3 of the Act so as to insert the clause relating to economically weaker sections and to provide that the reservation to economically weaker sections shall be subject to a maximum of ten per cent. of the posts in each category; and

(iii) to amend sub-section (1) of Section 9 of the Act so as to insert the clause relating to economically weaker sections and to provide that the reservation to economically weaker sections shall be subject to a maximum of ten percent. of the seats in each category

The amendments to take place in accordance with this bill will be under Sections 2, 3 and 9.

*Please read the bill here: Jammu and Kashmir Reservation (Second Amendment) Bill, 2019


Rajya Sabha

Bill No. XXVIII of 2019

Legislation UpdatesStatutes/Bills/Ordinances

Motor Vehicles (Amendment) Bill, 2019 has been passed by Rajya Sabha, dated 31-07-2019.

The amendments in the Bill mainly focus on issues relating to improving road safety, citizens’ facilitation while dealing with the transport department, strengthening rural transport, last mile connectivity and public transport, automation and computerization and enabling online services.

Some of the important areas of the amendment are as follows:

Road Safety

In the area of road safety, the Bill proposes to increase penalties to act as a deterrent against traffic violations.  Stricter provisions are being proposed in respect of offences like juvenile driving, drunken driving, driving without licence, dangerous driving, over-speeding, overloading, etc. Stricter provisions for helmets have been introduced along with provisions for electronic detection of violations.  Penalty regarding motor vehicles is to be increased by 10 % every year.

Proposed Amendments in Various Penalties under Motor Vehicles (Amendment) Bill – 2019

Section Old Provision / Penalty New Proposed Provision / Minimum Penalties
177 General Rs 100 Rs 500
New 177A Rules of road regulation violation Rs 100 Rs 500
178 Travel without ticket RS 200 Rs 500
179 Disobedience of orders of authorities Rs 500 Rs 2000
180 Unautorized use of vehicles without licence Rs 1000 Rs 5000
181 Driving without licence Rs 500 Rs 5000
182 Driving despite disqualification Rs 500 Rs 10,000
182 B Oversize vehicles New Rs 5000
183 Over speeding Rs 400 Rs 1000 for LMV

Rs 2000 for Medium passenger vehicle

184 Dangerous driving penalty Rs 1000 Upto Rs 5000
185 Drunken driving Rs 2000 Rs 10,000
189 Speeding / Racing Rs 500 Rs 5,000
192 A Vehicle without permit upto Rs 5000 Upto Rs 10,000
193 Aggregators (violations of licencing conditions) New Rs 25,000 to

Rs 1,00,000

194 Overloading Rs 2000 and

Rs 1000 per extra tonne

Rs 20,000 and

Rs 2000 per extra tonne

194 A Overloading of passengers Rs 1000 per extra passenger
194 B Seat belt Rs 100 Rs 1000
194 C Overloading of two wheelers Rs 100 Rs 2000, Disqualification for 3 months for licence
194 D Helmets Rs 100 Rs 1000 Disqualification for 3 months for licence
194 E Not providing way for emergency vehicles New Rs 10,000
196 Driving Without Insurance RS 1000 Rs 2000
199 Offences by Juveniles New Guardian / owner shall be deemed to be guilty. Rs 25,000 with 3 yrs imprisonment. For Juvenile to be tried under JJ Act. Registration of Motor Vehicle to be cancelled
206 Power of Officers to impound documents Suspension of driving licenses u/s 183, 184, 185, 189, 190, 194C, 194D, 194E
210 B Offences committed by enforcing authorities Twice the penalty under the relevant section

Vehicle Fitness

Bill mandates automated fitness testing for vehicles. The testing agencies issuing automobile approvals have been brought under the ambit of the Act and standards will be set for motor vehicle testing institutes. The Bill also provides for a compulsory recall of defective vehicles and power to examine irregularities of vehicle companies.

Recall of Vehicles

The Bill allows the central government to order for recall of motor vehicles if a defect in the vehicle may cause damage to the environment, or the driver, or other road users. The manufacturer of the recalled vehicle will be required to: (i) reimburse the buyers for the full cost of the vehicle, or (ii) replace the defective vehicle with another vehicle with similar or better specifications.

Road Safety Board

Bill provides for a National Road Safety Board, to be created by the central government through a notification. The Board will advise the central and state governments on all aspects of road safety and traffic management including standards of motor vehicles,  registration and licensing of vehicles,  standards for road safety, and promotion of new vehicle technology.

Protection of Good Samaritan

To help road accident victims, Good Samaritan guidelines have been incorporated in the Bill.  The Bill defines a Good Samaritan as a person who renders emergency medical or non-medical assistance to a victim at the scene of an accident, and provides rules to prevent harassment of such a person.

Cashless Treatment during Golden Hour

The Bill provides for a scheme for cashless treatment of road accident victims during golden hour.

Third-Party Insurance

The Bill has included the driver’s attendant in 3rd Party insurance. re will be no cap on liability of insurers. There will be a 10-time increase in insurance compensation, from Rs 50, 000 to Rs 5 lakh. Claim process has been simplified. Insurance firms have to pay claims within a month if the victim’s family agree to accept Rs 5 lakh compensation. The Bill also increases the minimum compensation for hit and run cases from Rs 25,000 to two lakh rupees in case of death, and from Rs 12,500 to Rs 50,000 in case of grievous injury.

Motor Vehicle Accident Fund

Bill requires the central government to constitute a Motor Vehicle Accident Fund, to provide compulsory insurance cover to all road users in India. It will be utilised for:  treatment of persons injured in road accidents as per the golden hour scheme,  compensation to representatives of a person who died in a hit and run accident,  compensation to a person grievously hurt in a hit and run accident, and  compensation to any other persons as prescribed by the central government.

Improving Services using e-Governance

Improving the delivery of services to the stakeholders using e-Governance is one of the major focuses of this Bill. This includes:

  • Provision for online driving licenses
  • Process of Vehicle Registration
  • Drivers Training

Reforms in the Transportation System

Development of an integrated Transport System will be possible from the National Transportation Policy. This will also enhance the powers of the State Governments, provide better last-mile connectivity, rural transport, etc.

Taxi aggregators

Bill defines aggregators as digital intermediaries or market places which can be used by passengers to connect with a driver for transportation purposes (taxi services). The Bill provides guidelines for Aggregators. At present, there are no rules in many states for regulating aggregators, taxis, etc.

Reforms in Driving Licences

The vehicle owners may register their vehicle anywhere in the state and process of registration will be done by dealers. Differently abled persons will get facilities for registration of vehicles.

Reforms in the Transportation System

Development of an Integrated Transport System will be possible from the National Transportation Policy. This will also enhance the powers of the State Governments, provide better last mile connectivity, rural transport, etc. The Bill provides guidelines for Aggregators.


[Press Release dt. 31-07-2019]

Source: PIB