Government of India moves a step closer to Nirav Modi’s extradition, as UK court rules that “extradition to India is compatible with his Convention rights within the meaning of Human Rights Act, 1998” || Detailed Report 

Westminster Magistrates’ Court: Marking a significant development in the Punjab National Bank fraud case, District Judge Sam Goozée while deliberating upon request submitted by the Government of India for the extradition of Nirav Modi held that, Modi’s extradition to India is compatible with his ECHR Convention rights within the meaning of Human Rights Act, 1998, therefore for further processes as per Section 87(3) of Extradition Act, 2003, the case shall be sent to the Secretary of State for a decision as to whether Nirav Modi is to be extradited. The Court also notified Mr Modi that he has the right to appeal to the High Court (on a point of law or fact or both) against the Judge’s decision to send the matter to the Secretary of State. However, it was clarified that in case Mr Modi chooses to exercise his right to appeal, the appeal will not be heard until the Secretary of State has reached a decision on the matter.


CBI and Enforcement Directorate Cases: In January 2018, CBI received a complaint by the Deputy General Manager of the Punjab National Bank alleging large-scale fraud perpetrated by Nirav Modi. It was alleged that a number of Modi’s firms had fraudulently used the credit facility offered by PNB known as ‘Letters of Undertaking’ [a form of bank guarantee to facilitate foreign transactions]. Post investigating the matter, CBI charged Mr Modi with offences under Section 120B (IPC) (Criminal Conspiracy) read with Section 420 of the IPC (Cheating and Dishonestly Inducing Delivery of Property), Section 409 of IPC (criminal breach of trust by a public servant or by banker, merchant or agent) and Section 13 of the Prevention of Corruption Act 1988 (Criminal Misconduct by a Public Servant).

As a result of the CBI investigation, the Enforcement Directorate (ED) launched a parallel investigation into offences of suspected money laundering of the proceeds of the fraud reported by PNB. As a consequence, as a result, Nirav Modi was charged with an offence contrary to Section 3 of the Prevention of Money Laundering Act 2002.

Evidence Tampering: It was also alleged that, Modi conspired to remove the original documents relating to the LOU applications from PNB bank premises to the offices of a law firm. The firm was misled into accepting the documents as they were informed that the documents they were receiving were not original documents.

Subsequent disappearance and Extradition attempts by India: Owing to the uproar following the revelation of the bank fraud, Nirav Modi absconded. He was later reported to be sighted in the United Kingdom. Once his presence in the UK was confirmed, the Government of India put forth the extraction request in July 2018, to seek Modi’s return for the purposes prosecution. Post-certification of the requests by the Home Office in February 2019, the Secretary of State issued a  certificate in accordance with s.70(1) of the  Extradition Act, 2003, certifying the requests were valid and had been made in the approved way. Nirav Modi was arrested on 19th March 2019 and has remained in custody throughout the extradition proceedings.


The primary issue that concerned the Court was that Section 78(4)(b) of Extradition Act, 2003 required the Judge to decide whether the offences specified in the request are extradition offences or not.


Nirav Modi, via his counsels Clare Montgomery and Ben Watson challenged the extradition requests on the following grounds-

  • Whether the offences stated in the requests are extradition offences as per S. 137 of Extradition Act, 2003. Whether there is a prima facie case and evidence which would be sufficient to make a case requiring an answer by Nirav Modi if the proceedings were the summary trial of information against him.
  • Whether extradition is compatible with Modi’s ECHR Convention rights,  especially Articles 3 and 6 (as per the requirement in S. 87 of Extradition Act)
  • It was further contended that granting the extradition request will be oppressive to Mr. Modi’s mental health (S. 91 of Extradition Act).

Court’s Observations

Perusing the facts, the contentions of the case, evidences produced and issues of human rights, the Court deemed it fit to categorize its discussion and observations under the following heads-

Prima facie case (CBI, ED): After perusing “16 volumes of evidence and information from the GOI and 16 bundles of expert reports and defence evidence and a total of 32 lever arch folders of documents”, the Court concluded that, “On one possible view of the evidence, I am satisfied that there is evidence upon which NDM could be convicted in relation the conspiracy to defraud the PNB. A prima face case is established”. Similarly, the Court observed that there is a prima facie case of money laundering as well. The conclusions were based on a detailed scrutiny of the facts and evidences adduced, based on which the Court was satisfied that the LOUs issued to Modi’s firms without appropriate cash margins and without being recorded on the bank’s systems. The concerned LOUs were also issued in direct contravention to the Circular issued by the Bank. The Court was also satisfied that the evidences had clearly established the links between Nirav Modi and the co- conspirators. The CBI investigation also demonstrated that Nirav Modi had retained control of the Nirav Modi Firms but had sought to disguise the control of the firms through the use of dummy partners recruited at his behest in order to sustain the LOU scheme.

Extradition Offences:  The Court observed that offences specified in the request are extradition offences as defined by Section 137(3) of Extradition Act. Nirav Modi is accused in a Category 2 territory of the commissions of offences constituted by the conduct set out in the request. The Court noted that the burden rests on the Requesting State (in this case India) to prove to the criminal standard pursuant to Section 206 Extradition Act that the offences within the request are extradition offences. “The approach is to look at the essentials of the conduct relied on and consider whether if it had occurred in England, at the time it was alleged to have occurred, it would have constituted an English offence” that is to say that the words “constitute an offence” in Section 137(2)(b) does not mean the Requesting State has to prove guilt of Nirav Modi in English law, it simply means that, if proved, it would constitute a comparable English offence. Examining the concerned provisions of the 2003 Act, the Court stated that, “A request need not identify the relevant mens rea of the equivalent English offence for the purposes of satisfying dual criminality. Instead it suffices that the necessary mental element can be inferred by the court from the conduct identified in the request documents or that the conduct alleged includes matters capable of sustaining the mental element necessary under English law”.

Analyzing the submissions of the Indian Government, the Court was satisfied that they had proved that ‘conduct’ in the requests is capable of satisfying the requirements of the notional English offences, thereby meeting the requirements of Section 137 of Extradition Act.

Human Rights (Articles 3 and 6 of ECHR and S. 91 of Extradition Act): The Court took note of the doubts raised by Nirav Modi’s counsels that he will not be tried fairly in India, citing evidences regarding the fragility of the independence of the judiciary. The District Judge observed that, Modi’s case has garnered huge media attention due to the allegations of defrauding a State-owned bank of significant sums of money, therefore it comes of no surprise that the case has garnered political interest and some commentary. “Sensationalist media reporting in high profile criminal cases is not unique to India and is not unknown in this jurisdiction. Courts are used to dealing with high profile cases which are subjected to ill-advised political commentary”. The Court concluded that irrespective of the media and political attention, there is no evidence which raises a doubt on the independence of judiciary and suggests that upon extradition, Nirav Modi will not be tried fairly.

Regarding the concerns directed towards deterioration of Nirav Modi’s mental health, the Court noted the Indian Government’s details about Barrack No 12, Arthur Road Jail, where Nirav Modi will be lodged upon his extradition; and also the comprehensive assurances vis-à-vis Modi’s physical and mental well-being during his time in prison. The Court also perused Nirav Modi’s psychiatric report, which states that Modi requires regular psychiatric support to review and adjust his medication as required. Based on the expert opinions and information furnished on the issue, Sam Goozée, J., concluded that “I have no doubt that Courts would ensure these assurances are upheld. There is no reliable evidence of the GOI breaching their solemn diplomatic assurance… the Indian authorities have capacity to cope properly with NDM’s mental health and suicidal risk, bolstered by NDM being able to access private treatments from clinicians. I also weigh up the strong public interest in giving effect to extradition treaty obligations”.

Other Remarks: Apart from the aforementioned observations, the Court also pointed gave a sharp critique on certain aspects that emerged during the course of the proceedings-   

  • In course of examining the numerous evidences adduced, the Judge noted that, “Unlike the evidence from the Defence, the evidence produced by the GOI in the case, through no fault of Counsel, was poorly presented and very difficult to navigate”.
  • The Judge also made some scathing remarks on the “ill-advised political commentary” and sensationalist approach of the media around the case.
  • The Judge particularly took note of the comments expressed by former Supreme Court Judge Shri Markandey Katju (expert opinion), stating that, “Despite having been a former Supreme Court judge in India until his retirement in 2011 his evidence was in my assessment less than objective and reliable. His evidence in Court appeared tinged with resentment towards former senior judicial colleagues. It had hallmarks of an outspoken critic with his own personal agenda. I found his evidence and behaviour in engaging the media the day before giving evidence to be questionable for someone who served the Indian Judiciary at such a high level appointed to guard and protect the rule of law”.

[Government of India v. Nirav Deepak Modi, decided on 25-02-2021]

Sucheta Sarkar, Editorial Assistant has put this story together.

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